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English 110: Final thesis statement - Fabian
155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. Need to practice for the writing sections? Try this list of thesis on smoking, past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). These are also good for practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to talk on these subjects. 1. Contract Comparison Essay! People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and statement cigarettes examples to support your answer. 3. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the essay prompts, way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 4. It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is learned is contained in books.#8221; Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important?
Why? 5. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on statement on smoking cigarettes your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. 6. If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 7. How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family.
Use specific reasons and contract comparison examples to support your opinion. 9. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 10. #8220;When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and thesis on smoking cigarettes examples to explain your position. 11. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students#8217; sports activities as they give to their university libraries.
Use specific reasons and contrast essay examples to thesis statement cigarettes, support your opinion. Contract Comparison Essay! 12. Thesis Statement On Smoking Cigarettes! Many people visit museums when they travel to phd thesis chennai, new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to on smoking, support your answer. 13. Of Research Paper! Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, home.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and bear examples to statement on smoking, support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.
15. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 17.
Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Bear Essays! Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. 18. What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and statement on smoking examples to explain why these qualities are important. Argumentative On Online! 19. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)?
Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 20. It is better for children to thesis cigarettes, grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. 21. In general, people are living longer now. Grizzly! Discuss the causes of thesis, this phenomenon. Argumentative Essay Dating! Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. Thesis On Smoking Cigarettes! 22. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. Essay! In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. 23. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. 25.
A person you know is planning to thesis on smoking, move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in comparison, your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to statement, develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to paper school, support your answer. 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 28. Do you agree or disagree with the statement on smoking cigarettes, following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 29. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Television, newspapers, magazines, and revolution other media pay too much attention to thesis statement cigarettes, the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion. 30. Some people believe that the Earth is contrast essay being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to thesis on smoking cigarettes, live.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 31. It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details in your answer. 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Of Research Paper For High School! Others move a number of on smoking, times throughout their lives, looking for a better job, house, community, or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in contrast prompts, search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to statement on smoking, support your opinion.
33. Is it better to phd thesis writing chennai, enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for statement, some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Bear Essays! 34. You have received a gift of money. The money is thesis statement on smoking cigarettes enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to a concert you want to attend.
Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and essays details to support your answer. 35. You must select a person to thesis on smoking cigarettes, teach others to essay scientific revolution, do a job. Which one of the following is the most important for you to consider in thesis on smoking cigarettes, making your selection? the person#8217;s education the person#8217;s work experience the quality of the person#8217;s previous work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 36. Businesses should hire employees for their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree?
Use specific reasons and examples to argumentative dating, support your answer. 37. Countries, businesses, and thesis statement cigarettes schools are three areas that need good leaders. Choose one of these three areas and describe the paper school, most important qualities of a leader in that area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details. 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives. Use specific reasons and examples to thesis statement on smoking, support your answer.
39. Do you agree or disagree that progress is always good? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 40. Learning about the past has no value for those of us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 41. The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to keep trying and comparison never stop working for your goals.
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 42. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of statement on smoking cigarettes, technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 43. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for argumentative dating, adults as they are for children. On Smoking Cigarettes! Use specific reasons and grizzly examples to support your answer.
44. Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields. Do these awards and prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and on smoking cigarettes examples to support your opinion. 45. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to argumentative essay on online, support your answer.
46. What is a very important skill a person should learn in thesis statement cigarettes, order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 47. Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important.
What should be considered or kept in mind in resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 48. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the contrast prompts, most important factor for success in thesis statement on smoking, school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
49. Of Research For High School! Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to statement cigarettes, support your answer. 50. Which is more important for of research paper for high school, success: the natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples. 51. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 52. Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Thesis Statement On Smoking Cigarettes! 53. Some people prefer to get up early in the morning and start the day#8217;s work. Others prefer to get up later in the day and work until late at night. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
54. What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in your culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 55. Some people prefer to work for essay, a large company. Cigarettes! Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 56. People work because they need money to live.
What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to support your answer. 57. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Face-to-face communication is grizzly essays better than other types of thesis statement on smoking, communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 58. Some people like to do only what they already do well. Other people prefer to try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 59. Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from writing chennai, careful planning. In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Statement! 60. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 61. Bear Essays! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of thesis on smoking cigarettes, a job is the money a person earns. Use specific reasons and examples to essays, support your answer. 62.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Cigarettes! Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 63. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
64. A company is contract essay going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 65. On Smoking! Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to comparison essay, amuse and entertain.
Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 66. Do you agree or disagree with the statement, following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Comparison! Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 67. Statement Cigarettes! Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done.
Other people prefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 68. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to comparison essay, the Moon and to other planets). Thesis Cigarettes! Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for dating, our basic needs on thesis on smoking Earth.
Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 69. People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer. 70. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and phd thesis writing examples to on smoking cigarettes, support your opinion.
71. Scientific Revolution! If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 72. You have been told that dormitory rooms at on smoking, your university must be shared by two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on contrast essay prompts developing or buying computer technology.
Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on thesis statement on smoking more basic needs. Scientific Revolution! Which one of on smoking, these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 74. Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 75. Argumentative On Online! Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to statement cigarettes, support your answer. 76. In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to on online, be successful in life?
Use specific reasons and examples from your experience to explain your answer. Statement Cigarettes! When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in writing, the prompt. Thesis Cigarettes! 77. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the comparison, contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer.
78. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to on smoking, live in apartments in the community. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in of research paper, an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for your preference.
79. You need to travel from your home to on smoking, a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Tell which method of travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice. 80. Scientific! Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students.
Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. 81. Some people believe that the statement, best way of learning about life is by argumentative dating, listening to thesis statement, the advice of family and essay revolution friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. Thesis On Smoking Cigarettes! Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about phd thesis chennai, life. Which do you think is preferable?
Use specific examples to support your preference. 82. When people move to statement on smoking, another country, some of them decide to argumentative, follow the customs of the new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices.
Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. 83. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to be with friends most of the cigarettes, time. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 84. Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends.
Compare the advantages of each choice. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer. 85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies.
Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? 86. The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Essay! Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of statement cigarettes, establishing a new university in your community.
Use specific details in your discussion. 87. Some people think that the family is the essay dating, most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. 88. Statement! Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time?
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. Contrast Prompts! 89. Thesis Statement On Smoking Cigarettes! People learn in different ways. Some people learn by doing things; other people learn by reading about prompts, things; others learn by statement, listening to people talk about things. Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. Argumentative Essay Dating! 90. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.
Compare the advantages of statement, having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to essay on online, you. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 91. Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their usual habits. Compare these two approaches to life. Which approach do you prefer? Explain why.
92. Thesis Statement On Smoking! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to grizzly essays, support your answer. 93. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 94. Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct.
Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. 95. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different.
Use specific reasons to support your answer. 96. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and thesis statement cigarettes established facts. Revolution! Use specific reasons and details to thesis statement on smoking, support your opinion. 97. Do you agree or disagree with the bear essays, following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Use specific reasons and examples to thesis statement on smoking, support your opinion. 98.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school. Use specific reasons to support your answer. 99. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 100. Essay! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position.
101. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on thesis on smoking academic studies. Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
102. A university plans to develop a new research center in your country. Essay On Online Dating! Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation. 103.
Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 104. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 105. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed. Thesis Statement On Smoking! 106. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of age) are the most important years of a person#8217;s life. Format! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
107. Statement Cigarettes! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to writing, school.
Which of these two school policies do you think is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 109. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is thesis fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 110. Prompts! Do you agree or disagree with the cigarettes, following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Phd Thesis! 111.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to statement cigarettes, be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Contrast Essay! Use specific reasons and examples to thesis, support your answer. 112. What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and of research for high examples to support your opinion. Thesis Statement On Smoking Cigarettes! 113. If you could make one important change in comparison essay, a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and thesis statement on smoking specific examples to support your answer. 114.
A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development. Contrast Essay Prompts! What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and thesis statement cigarettes specific examples to support your choice. 115. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and scientific examples to support your choice. 116. Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building?
Use specific reasons and details to thesis statement, support your choice. 117. Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 118. Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Essays! Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. Thesis Statement On Smoking! Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to writing chennai, explain your choice. 119. Your school has received a gift of money. What do you think is the thesis on smoking cigarettes, best way for your school to phd thesis chennai, spend this money? Use specific reasons and on smoking details to support your choice.
120. Contrast Essay Prompts! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 121. Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish.
How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. 122. What is the most important animal in your country? Why is the cigarettes, animal important?
Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. 123. Phd Thesis! Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 124. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose.
Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 125. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule? Use specific reasons and details to support your position.
126. Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. Thesis Cigarettes! What is one kind of plant that is important to you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 127. You have the format of research paper for high school, opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit?
Use specific reasons and thesis statement details to of research, explain your choice. 128. In the future, students may have the choice of studying at statement cigarettes, home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. 129. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
130. The twentieth century saw great change. In your opinion, what is one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. Phd Thesis Writing! 131. When people need to thesis statement cigarettes, complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person.
Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 132. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 133. Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of bear, dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 134.
Is the ability to read and write more important today than in on smoking, the past? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to format of research paper for high, support your answer. 135. People do many different things to stay healthy. Thesis On Smoking! What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
136. Argumentative Essay Dating! You have decided to give several hours of your time each month to improve the cigarettes, community where you live. What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 137. Your school has enough money to bear essays, purchase either computers for students or books for the library. Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. 138. Thesis On Smoking Cigarettes! Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries.
Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and essay scientific revolution details to explain your answer. 139. People listen to music for different reasons and at different times. Why is music important to many people? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Cigarettes! 140.
Groups or organizations are an important part of some people#8217;s lives. Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 141. Imagine that you are preparing for a trip. You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.
142. When students move to a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 143. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the friendship. Do you agree?
Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to format paper school, explain your answer. Statement! 144. Format School! Every generation of people is different in thesis on smoking, important ways. How is your generation different from prompts, your parents#8217; generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 145.
Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in class. Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and thesis statement on smoking details to support your choice. 146.
Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147. A friend of yours has received some money and grizzly essays plans to statement cigarettes, use all of it either to go on vacation to format of research school, buy a car Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 148. The 21st century has begun.
What changes do you think the new century will bring? Use examples and details in thesis statement, your answer. 149. What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer.
150. Prompts! Movies are popular all over the world. Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 151. In your country, is there more need for land to be left in thesis statement, its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Format Paper School! 152. Many people have a close relationship with their pets.
These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and thesis statement examples to support your answer. 153. Films can tell us a lot about the phd thesis writing chennai, country where they were made. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. 154. Some students prefer to statement cigarettes, study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to essay prompts, support your answer. 155. You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business. Which would you choose to buy?
Give specific reasons to explain your choice.
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Thesis Statement For The Effect Of Smoking In Our Health Free Essays
Object-Oriented Design Concepts in UML. The Unified Modeling Language ™ ( UML ®) is inherently object-oriented modeling language and was designed for thesis on smoking cigarettes use in object-oriented software applications. The applications could be based on essays the object-oriented technologies recommended by the Object Management Group (OMG), which owns the UML. Thesis Statement Cigarettes? The initial versions of UML (UML 1.x) were based on three leading object-oriented methods - Booch, OMT, and OOSE, to represent the culmination of best practices in practical object-oriented modeling . UML 2.x is still object-oriented in its core (though there were some apparently unsuccessful attempts to extend UML to support other development methods). Here's some illustration of this object orientation of UML from UML 1.4.2 Specification: A frequently asked question has been: Why doesn’t UML support data-flow diagrams? Simply put, data-flow and format of research other diagram types that were not included in cigarettes the UML do not fit as cleanly into a consistent object-oriented paradigm. This might explain why UML does not care for writing example to support database modeling , which is still mostly based on relational models to describe relational databases. It does not explain why UML ignores modeling of object relational databases or modeling of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI).
GUI designs were and thesis still are prominent examples of object-oriented design and programming, while completely neglected by UML. To understand and use UML as intended by its authors, software architects and developers should be familiar with general concepts and methods of object-oriented analysis and design ( OOAD ) and/or of the object-oriented development ( OOD ), and how those were applied to UML itself. There is one problem with this requirement: though OOAD/OOD is being used for several decades, there is still no concensus on essays what is statement on smoking cigarettes OOAD and even what are the fundamental concepts (quarks) of the OOAD. See one nice but pedantic attempt to define fundamental OOD concepts in [DJA 06]. A problem is that UML specification uses some OOD concepts assuming that there are some generally accepted definitions of those concepts, which is a mistaken assumption. Bear Essays? To make things even worse, the Glossary that was present in UML 1.x specifications and included terms from OMG standards and object-oriented analysis and design methods in addition to UML and MOF specific terminology, was removed from all UML 2.x specifications. Removing Glossary from UML specification was really wicked decision. Ok, so we are really in trouble: UML specifications use OOAD concepts which have no clear and generally accepted definitions without providing own interpretations or definitions of statement on smoking, those concepts. Wait, sometimes they do provide some definitions.
Let's see what do we have. Whether you agree or not, there is no commonly accepted definition of Object-Oriented Design (or Development, or Programming) (OOD, OOP). So I will make up some definition: Object-Oriented Design is a software development approach to design and implement software system as a collection of interacting stateful objects with specified structure and behavior. There are several fundamental concepts defining OOD but there is no agreement on the exact list of the concepts, their definition and taxonomy (classification). We will take a look at contract comparison, some of OOD concepts that seem relevant to the UML:
The origin of classes introduced in Simula 67 was computer simulation . The classes in Simula 67 (called processes in Simula) [SK 03], have a list of statements with execution started when object is statement on smoking cigarettes created. When the essay revolution execution of the statements ends, object becomes terminated. Object's local data and procedures can still be accessed from outside of the object after termination. During execution objects may choose to temporarily suspend their execution (even if it is currently inside one or more procedure calls) and let another object to take control. Thesis Statement On Smoking? If the control is later returned back to the object, it will resume execution from the point where it was suspended. For a Java or C# programmer this concept will sound like as a Thread . Note, that the concept of the process in Simula was based on paper for high the block in Algol-60.
Block in Algol-60 allowed declaration of local variables, local procedures and a list of executable statements. But execution of statement on smoking cigarettes, block could not be suspended, and once it is finished, local variables and procedures are removed from execution stack and grizzly bear essays no longer available. UML class is a classifier which describes a set of objects that share the same. Class may be modeled as being active , meaning that an instance of the class has some autonomous behavior. In all versions of on smoking, UML from essay on online dating UML 1.x to UML 2.5, the essence of object is the same: Glossary of the now obsolete UML 1.4.2 Specification defined object as. An entity with a well defined boundary and identity that encapsulates state and behavior. State is represented by attributes and relationships, behavior is represented by operations, methods, and state machines. An object is an thesis, instance of argumentative essay on online dating, a class. UML 2.5 describes object as. An object is an individual [thing] with a state and thesis statement cigarettes relationships to comparison essay other objects.
The state of an object identifies the values for that object of properties of the classifier of the thesis statement on smoking object. Message concept is probably one of the most confusing in essay OOAD, especially for the software developers familiar with modern messaging systems and APIs such as the Java Message Service (JMS) or Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ), which allow separate, uncoupled applications or components to reliably communicate asynchronously. Message concept in OOAD and UML is quite a different thing. Messages in Smalltalk-80 represent two-way communications between the objects of the system. Note, that in Smalltalk everything is an thesis on smoking, object, including primitive values and classes. A message requests an operation from the receiver. Bear Essays? Object selector and arguments transmit information to statement the receiver about what type of response to make.
It is up to the receiver to decide how to respond to the message. The receiver returns an object back that becomes the value of the message expression. Let's consider simple Smalltalk example of prompts, a binary message to request arithmetic operation: In this case, object '3' is the receiver of the message '+ 4'. The message contains selector '+' and argument '4'. Selector of the message is a name (or symbol) for the type of interaction required from the receiver. The receiver of the message ('3') returns back an object ('7') that becomes the thesis statement on smoking cigarettes value of the message expression. If a message expression includes an essay scientific revolution, assignment prefix, the object returned by the receiver will become the new object referred to thesis statement on smoking by the variable. Even if no information needs to be communicated back to the sender, a receiver always returns a value for the message expression. Returning a value indicates that the response to essay scientific the message is cigarettes complete. For example, makes 7 to phd thesis chennai be the thesis on smoking new value of the variable sum.
Classes are components of the Smalltalk-80 system, and they are represented by the objects as all other components. Each class has a name that describes the type of component its instances represent. A class name is a way for contract instances to identify themselves, and it provides a way to statement on smoking refer to the class in expressions. Class name becomes the name of a globally shared variable, and it must be capitalized. New objects in writing Smalltalk-80 are created by on smoking cigarettes sending messages to classes . Note, this approach resolves the dilemma of sending create message to nonexisting object to create itself. In Smalltalk the message is actually sent to for high the class object to create an instance of the class.
Most classes respond to thesis statement on smoking cigarettes the unary message new by creating a new instance of themselves. Comparison Essay? For example, sends the 'new' message to the Dictionary class which creates and returns back an instance of itself to be assigned to the variable users. Note, that some Smalltalk classes could create instances in response to statement cigarettes other messages. For example, the standard class Date responds to writing chennai the message today with an instance representing the current day. In C# the same result could be achieved by thesis statement on smoking using static property Today of the DateTime structure. Messages are intrinsic elements of UML interaction diagrams. Contract Comparison? A message defines a specific kind of on smoking, communication between lifelines of an interaction. A communication can be, for example, invoking an operation, replying back, creating or destroying an instance, raising a signal. Essay Scientific? It also specifies the sender and the receiver of the message.
Create message is shown as a dashed line with open arrowhead, and pointing to thesis on smoking cigarettes the created lifeline's head. Online Bookshop creates Account. Note, that this weird convention to send a message to phd thesis writing a nonexisting object to create itself is used both in UML 1.x and 2.x. As we saw above, in statement on smoking cigarettes Smalltalk-80 new objects are created by sending messages to paper for high school classes , with instance of the statement class created and essay prompts returned back. So one way to interpret UML create message notation is probably as a shortcut for these actions. Operation is defined in UML 1.4.2 as a service that can be requested from an object to effect behavior. An operation has a signature , which may restrict the actual parameters that are possible. Method is defined as the implementation of an thesis statement on smoking, operation. It specifies the revolution algorithm or procedure associated with an operation. Encapsulation is one of the loosely defined OOAD concepts.
The term is known in software development for many years but I can't find any reliable origin. Encapsulation was mentioned in the article [CLU 77] describing abstraction mechanisms in programming language CLU in the context of hiding details of implementation . CLU restricted access to the implementation by allowing to use only (public) cluster operations, i.e. public interface . It promoted design practices where abstractions are used to define and simplify the connections between system modules and to encapsulate implementation decisions that are likely to change. If we look up the statement cigarettes English word encapsulate in a dictionary, we will find two meanings: (1) to encase or become enclosed in a capsule (2) to express in a brief summary, epitomise. Both of of research for high school, these meanings of encapsulation seem appropriate in the context of OOAD. Let's assume that the definition of encapsulation in OOAD is something like: Encapsulation is statement on smoking cigarettes very close or similar to the abstraction concept. The difference is probably in direction - encapsulation is more about argumentative essay hiding (encapsulating) implementation details while abstraction is about finding and exposing public interfaces.
The two concepts are supported by access control. Access control allows both to on smoking cigarettes hide implementation ( implementation hiding or information hiding ) and to expose public interface of a class. UML specifications provide no definition of encapsulation but use it loosely in essay on online dating several contexts. For example, in UML 1.4 object is defined as an entity with a well defined boundary and thesis statement cigarettes identity that encapsulates state (attributes and relationships) and behavior (operations, methods, and state machines). Grizzly Bear? Elements in peer packages are encapsulated and are not a priori visible to each other. In UML 2.4 and 2.5 a component represents a modular part of a system that encapsulates its contents and whose manifestation is thesis on smoking replaceable within its environment , and also a Component is encapsulated and . as a result, Components and subsystems can be flexibly reused and replaced by connecting (wiring) them together . Encapsulated classifier in UML 2.4 and 2.5 is a structured classifier isolated from its environment (encapsulated ?) by using ports. Each port specifies a distinct interaction point between classifier and its environment.
Library Services is classifier encapsulated through searchPort port. UML 2.4 specification also used term completely encapsulated without providing any explanation. It was removed in UML 2.5. There is no single commonly accepted definition of essay, abstraction in OOD. Some sources define abstraction as a way or mechanism to represent complex reality using simplified model. It could be also defined as a way to thesis statement capture only those details about an object that are relevant to the current perspective. Contract Essay? We can try to go back to origins - sometime in 70s - when programming languages CLU, Alphard, Modula-2, etc. introduced abstraction mechanisms. Data abstractions in CLU were introduced with abstract data type construct called a cluster . Data abstractions required that the behavior of the data objects were completely characterized by the set of operations . Thesis Statement? Classical example is definition of stack cluster using only push and pop operations. CLU also introduced separation of abstraction from its implementation(s): Description unit of the cluster is interface specification of the abstraction. For the data abstractions it included the revolution number and statement cigarettes types of parameters, constraints on dating type parameters, and statement the name and interface specification of each operation.
The implementation involved both selecting a representation for the data objects and implementing each cluster operation in contract terms of that data representation. Ultimately, there can be many implementations of an abstraction. Each implementation must satisfy the cigarettes interface specification of the cluster. Abstraction in UML corresponds to contrast prompts the concept of abstraction in OOD (as described above). UML provides different types (subclasses) of thesis cigarettes, abstraction, including realizations (i.e. implementations). Abstraction is a dependency relationship that relates two elements or sets of elements (called client and supplier ) representing the same concept but at different levels of revolution, abstraction or from different viewpoints . Realization is a specialized abstraction relationship between two sets of model elements, one representing a specification (the supplier ) and the other represents an implementation of the latter (the client ). In OOAD and in UML 1.4 inheritance is defined as a mechanism by thesis statement which more specific classes (called subclasses or derived classes ) incorporate structure and behavior of the more general classes (called superclasses or base classes ). Glossary of the UML 1.4.2 defines inheritance as the mechanism by which those more specific elements incorporate structure and behavior of the more general elements . Inheritance supplements generalization relationship. Generalization is argumentative dating defined as a taxonomic relationship between a more general element and a more specific element.
The more specific element is fully consistent with the more general element and contains some additional information. An instance of the more specific element may be used where the more general element is allowed. Inheritance was explained in UML 1.4.2 using the concepts of thesis statement cigarettes, a full descriptor and a segment descriptor . A full descriptor contains a description of all of the attributes, associations, operations, and constraints that the object contains, and argumentative essay is usually implicit because it is built out of incremental segments combined together using inheritance. In an object-oriented language, the thesis statement description of an object is built out of incremental segments that are combined using inheritance to scientific produce a full descriptor for an object. The segments are the statement modeling elements that are actually declared in a model. They include elements such as class and other generalizable elements.
Each generalizable element contains a list of features and other relationships that it adds to what it inherits from its ancestors. Each kind of generalizable element has a set of inheritable features. For any model element, these include constraints. For classifiers, these include features ( attributes, operations, signal receptions, and methods) and participation in associations. [UML 1.4.2 Specification] If a generalizable element has more than one parent ( multiple inheritance ), then its full descriptor contains the union of the essay features from its own segment descriptor and the segment descriptors of all of its ancestors.
Attributes in UML 1.4 could not be redefined but a method may be declared in more than one subclass. A method declared in any segment supersedes and replaces a method with the same signature declared in any ancestor. UML 2.4 and the newest UML 2.5 specifications provide no definition for inheritance . UML 2.x specifications say that with generalization specializing classifier inherits features of the more general classifier. Any constraint applying to instances of the general classifier also applies to instances of the specific classifier. UML 2.5 provides some vague and incomplete explanation of how inheritance works in UML: When a Classifier is generalized, certain members of thesis, its generalizations are inherited, that is they behave as though they were defined in the inheriting Classifier itself.
For example, an inherited member that is an attribute has a value or collection of values in any instance of the inheriting Classifier, and argumentative essay on online dating an inherited member that is an Operation may be invoked on cigarettes an instance of the inheriting Classifier. [UML 2.5 Specification] As it is usual with other OOAD concepts, polymorphism is grizzly essays also poorly defined. You can find all kinds of thesis cigarettes, strange definitions of polymorphism, and there is no agreement which one is the best. Essay? To make things even worse, I will add my own definition of polymorphism: When context is defined at statement, compile time, it is prompts called static or compile-time polymorphism . When context is defined during program execution, it is dynamic or run-time polymorphism . It is believed that term polymorphism was introduced by Strachey in thesis statement 1967 [CS 67] to describe operations and functions that could be applied to more than one type of arguments. A typical example of static ad hoc polymorphism in procedural languages like ALGOL-60 or ALGOL-68 is: In this example + is polymorphic operation which could be used with different types of operands - integer, real, string, complex, vector, etc. Specific static context - types of operands x and y - will determine at compile time which implementation of contrast, + is to be used.
This kind of static polymorphism is usually called overloading and means using the same operation symbol or function name on different types. Note, that overloading also allows different number of parameters and thesis statement sometimes (ALGOL-68) even different priorities. Another kind of static polymorphism is parametric polymorphism [BSC 77] and bear is based on templates . In C++ example below, Vector template defines generic method 'elem' and operator '[ ]': In OOAD polymorphism means dynamic polymorphism and is commonly related to as late binding or dynamic binding . It could be defined as: Procedural language Algol-60 allowed to thesis on smoking pass a procedure as a parameter to another procedure. In Simula 67 classes may, like procedures, have formal parameters but they did not allow procedures as parameters to classes. Simula 67 authors found another way to have the same statements to comparison essay have slightly different effect in different objects [SK 03] by declaring a procedure in a class C as virtual, it could be redefined (overridden) in thesis on smoking a subclass D. . Thus, the same procedure call could activate different “versions” of the procedure, at least in objects of different subclasses. Dynamic binding mechanism in C++, Java, C# allows to contrast essay prompts determine behavior (implementation) to be invoked in response to the message received by a specific object. To get this kind of polymorphic behavior in C++, the member functions must be virtual and objects must be manipulated through pointers or references [BSC 77]. There is thesis statement on smoking no definition of polymorphism in argumentative essay on online UML specifications but there are some differences in how this term is statement cigarettes used in different versions of UML.
In UML 1.4.2 operation declares whether or not it may be realized by argumentative on online a different method in a subclass (which looks very similar to virtual functions in C++) by cigarettes using isPolymorphic attribute. Methods realizing polymorphic operation have the revolution same signature as the operation and have a body implementing the specification of the operation. Methods in descendants override and statement on smoking cigarettes replace methods inherited from ancestors. The isPolymorphic attribute is no longer present in UML 2.4 and UML 2.5 , without any explanation. Does it mean that all operations are now polymorphic (virtual), as if inspired by Java language? The UML 2.4.1 specification had one obscure statement mentioning polymorphism in scientific revolution Chapter 11, Actions, and this statement is now removed from UML 2.5 : Operations are specified in the model and can be dynamically selected only on smoking through polymorphism. I remember long time ago, Pascal language was promoted fiercely as a significant simplification compared to the huge, too formal, and complex Algol-68. The result was plain, restrained, and poorly defined language with ambiguous semantics. Hope, UML 2.5 simplification effort will not end up the same way, simple is not always lucid. Noticed a spelling error?
Select the contract comparison text using the statement cigarettes mouse and press Ctrl + Enter. This document describes UML 2.5 and is based on OMG™ Unified Modeling Language™ (OMG UML®) 2.5 specification [UML 2.5 FTF - Beta 1].
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The Common App Essay: What This Expert Wants You to on smoking cigarettes, Know. Writing the common app essays can feel daunting so here’s one of our favorite comforting pieces of advice about getting started from the writer Anne Lamott: Thirty years ago, my older brother, who was ten years old at format for high, the time, was trying to get a report on on smoking birds written that he’d had three months to write and it was due the next day. Phd Thesis! We were out at our family cabin in Bolinas, and cigarettes he was at the kitchen table close to tears, surrounded by argumentative essay on online dating, binder paper and pencils and statement unopened books on birds, immobilized by the hugeness of the format of research paper school task ahead. Then my father sat down beside him, put his arm around my brother’s shoulder, and said, ‘Bird by on smoking cigarettes, bird, buddy. Just take it bird by bird.’ Read on as former high school college advisor Alice Kleeman breaks down the just-released Common App prompts in of research paper, what one college expert calls a “master class.” And, as a bonus, she looks back at some of her favorite essay topics from over twenty years of advising students. The seven prompts that will appear on thesis statement on smoking the Common Application should work for nearly any topic you choose. Below, each prompt is broken down into possible academic, extracurricular, and phd thesis personal topics that might fit neatly into a response.
Of course, these are just suggestions, designed to jump-start your thinking, provide a gentle nudge if you feel stumped, and help you decide which prompt might provide the statement on smoking best opportunity for chennai, you to show the admission office who you are. Your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal and one that only you could write. These examples are just to statement on smoking cigarettes, get your essay juices flowing! [More Expert Help For Your College Essays here.] Common App Essay Prompts With Suggested Tips to contract comparison, Help You Start.
Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. “background,” “identity,” “interest,” “talent,” “incomplete without” • Have you moved from one school to another to pursue greater academic opportunities? • Has your pursuit of academics been influenced by your parents’ lack of formal education? Or perhaps the reverse: has your family’s path through higher education influenced your own? • Has your dedication to a particular academic area been shaped by cigarettes, your life experiences (for example, has your interest in essays, medicine stemmed from growing up with a sibling with a chronic illness?)? • Is your identity entirely tied up in the music you’ve been composing and cigarettes playing since you were five? • Has your ethnic background led you to participate deeply and on online fully in thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, the dance, spiritual, or culinary traditions of your culture? • Do you spend free time participating in activities through a cultural organization related to your family background? • Do you come from a bi-cultural family?
How would the person you are today be different if you did not have those influences? • Have you grown up in a family that has been challenged by poverty, illness, or another obstacle? How has this influenced your identity? • Have your extended family’s values been transmitted to contrast essay prompts, you in a unique and on smoking cigarettes particularly powerful way over the years? The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? “lessons,” “obstacles,” “later success,” “challenge,” “setback,” “failure,” “affect you,” “learn” If you choose this prompt, after describing the “challenge, setback, or failure,” be sure to essay, focus on the positive changes that emerged from the situation! • Did you challenge yourself in an academic area that is not usually your forte, and find that it didn’t go the way you hoped it might?
• Did you seek a summer internship in an academic area you thought you’d like to thesis statement, explore more deeply, and find that you weren’t engaged in the way you wished? • Have you submitted your writing, art, or lab results to a professional journal for publication, and received your first rejection letter? Or have you received what seemed to be negative feedback from contrast essay prompts, a teacher and had to thesis statement on smoking, approach the subject in essays, a new way? • Did you believe that the serious injury you experienced in your sophomore year would derail your athletic career? Or did you fail to make the team in thesis on smoking cigarettes, your sport of choice? (Beware of common athletic cliches [“There is no ‘I’ in phd thesis, team,” “I learned that winning isn’t everything,” etc.])
• Did you decide to thesis on smoking cigarettes, try participating in an extracurricular activity, only to chennai, discover your family obligations kept you from statement on smoking, being a full participant? • Did it seem like a great idea for you to follow in the footsteps of an older sibling and participate in his or her activities of writing chennai, choice, but you found it didn’t work out so well for thesis on smoking cigarettes, you? • Did you challenge yourself to a resolution, goal, or personal promise, and find you weren’t able to stick with it? • Did you make an effort to reach out to people you hoped would become your friends, only to contract, find they didn’t welcome you? • Have you ever taken a close look at your character traits and personal qualities and hoped to thesis on smoking, make fundamental changes, but then realized those traits and grizzly bear essays qualities were inextricably tied to who you are? [The College Essay: Why Weird Topics Are Beautiful] Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome?
“challenged,” “belief or idea,” “prompted thinking,” “outcome” • Did you decide to statement on smoking cigarettes, offer a different-from-the-accepted and possibly unpopular perspective in your English or history class? • Was there a school rule or policy relating to your academic path through high school that you challenged because you believed it did not serve you or others well? • Have you pursued an academic interest that is not often followed by people of contract, your gender or background? • When you learned that certain students were being bullied or excluded from an activity at your school, did you tackle the inequity? • Were you ever told by a coach or activity director that you would not be successful in statement on smoking, a particular activity, yet you chose to on online, pursue it? • Have your parents felt you couldn’t handle a new passion on cigarettes top of your other commitments, leading you to essay, seek ways to manage your time so you could prove your ability to thesis statement on smoking, balance your busy schedule? • Have you begun to question the precepts of your religious or cultural upbringing? • Are you resisting the pressure in your community to do it all—and do it all perfectly—and instead are seeking balance in your life? • Have you ever made a well-thought-out effort to convince your parents to give you more independence and contrast essay prompts freedom?
Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to statement on smoking, solve. It can be an contract comparison intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma—anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Thesis! Explain its significance to you and on online what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. “problem … solved,” “problem … you’d like to on smoking cigarettes, solve,” “intellectual,” “research,” “ethical dilemma,” “of personal importance,” “no matter the scientific revolution scale,” “steps you took … or could be taken,” “solution” • Did you ever leave a classroom entirely intrigued by a question posed by statement cigarettes, your teacher—and didn’t stop until you’d mined the essay prompts internet and thesis cigarettes the library to come up with answers? • Have you ever created a technological or communication solution to a common problem? Or do you have career goals that would lead you toward solving a world problem through technology or communication? • Have you had a job or internship in for high, which you worked alongside others to solve challenging intellectual, scientific, or creative problems?
Did working as a team make a difference in your problem-solving abilities? • Have you ever taken the thesis statement initiative within one of your clubs, sports, or activities to create change and make the organization more equitable or accessible for others? • In your pursuit of writing chennai, your extracurricular passion, have you encountered financial obstacles to thesis, participation, and grizzly bear have you found creative ways to on smoking, solve them? • Do your future goals include encouraging others to participate in an activity that has been a passion for you? How would you make that happen? • Have you ever initiated a change within your own family? For example, if there’s an issue that’s always a source of phd thesis writing chennai, conflict, did you decide to tackle it? • Are there stereotypes of teens in your neighborhood? Have you made an effort to change them? • Is there a challenge in your life—perhaps a physical or learning disability or an illness—for which you hope to advance a cure in thesis statement cigarettes, your career?
Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. “accomplishment/event/realization,” “sparked,” “personal growth,” “understanding,” “yourself or others” • Did you make your government and economics education come alive by registering to revolution, vote on thesis statement on smoking cigarettes your 18th birthday? Did that milestone connect your academic education with your day-to-day life? • Have you taken a class on a college campus and lived the phd thesis life of thesis statement on smoking, a college student during that time? Or did you participate in an internship during which you worked as an equal with a group of adults and so matured yourself? • Did you become a U.S. Scientific! citizen and experience studying for and taking the test, and cigarettes then participate in argumentative on online, the ceremony that goes along with that milestone? Did your growth through that experience change you as a member of your community?
• Has your talent allowed you to on smoking cigarettes, participate at essay, such a high level that your teammates, band-mates, or co-workers are all adults, and they treat you as such? • Has one of thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, your activities taken you out of your own community, so you learned to phd thesis writing, travel and thesis cope with new situations on your own? • Did you come up with the essay funding for your most meaningful activity on your own, so you’ve assumed a heightened level of responsibility and appreciated the activity all the more for your assertiveness in making it happen? • Does your family rely on you for statement cigarettes, responsibilities such as childcare for siblings, translation, transportation, or housework? Have your responsibilities led to a heightened understanding of the contract comparison essay adults in your life? • Have you taken on financial responsibilities to help support your family? • Did you experience a religious or cultural rite of passage that led to your personal growth? Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time.
Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? “topic/idea/concept,” “engaging,” “captivate,” “learn more” If you choose this prompt, know that it lends itself best to an academic (intellectual) response. • When you finished a lab in your science class, did you find that you couldn’t wait to replicate the thesis statement on smoking lab at home, then seek more in-depth information about the principles of the scientific revolution lab, then create another lab to extend your learning? • Have you used internet resources to teach yourself about an academic subject that is cigarettes, not offered as a class at your school? Have you become so absorbed in its study that you have introduced yourself to people whose career involves that subject? • Have you felt a special spark when you’ve discovered interdisciplinary connections between readings, assignments, lectures, or other learning in classes that, in theory, are not closely related? How have you pursued those links? • Are you an activist, dedicated to an issue that calls your name, no matter what else you happen to be doing, to the point that you simply must spend time and energy every day devoted to argumentative on online, that cause? • Have you taken your participation on thesis statement on smoking a team, in writing chennai, a club, or in an activity to the next step, seeking outlets beyond those provided so you can continue to indulge your passion and reach higher levels of skill and commitment?
• Have you developed your own unique time-management strategies that allow you to balance your normal family and thesis statement on smoking cigarettes school responsibilities with an enormous time and energy commitment to prompts, something that is deeply meaningful to you? • Have you used the internet to thesis, teach yourself about a personal interest or passion? Do you spend hours every day following links that deepen your knowledge and scientific understanding? Have you added to this concept/topic by creating your own content? • Do you believe in thesis cigarettes, creating your own personal history, spending hours divulging your deepest thoughts in your journal or sketchbook and losing yourself in grizzly, your own thoughts and dreams? • Is there a certain genre of reading that grabs you? Do you lose yourself for hours in biographies? poetry? historical novels? memoirs? What do you glean from your reading? Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to thesis statement, a different prompt, or one of your own design. Here’s a great way to think about this open-prompt option: Read your entire application, then ask yourself, “Is there something important about ME the reader will not know from my application?” Your essay can address that omission!
With all the freedom this prompt offers, you’ll still want to be sure that your essay, no matter what its topic: • leaves the reader with a much clearer understanding of phd thesis writing chennai, who you are. • focuses on something that matters—remember, this is an important opportunity for cigarettes, you! • keeps in mind that you do not know who is at the other end reading your essay, so considers the possible reactions of an unknown audience. • follows general advice about college essays (gimmicks are generally not helpful, nor is trying to be funny if that’s not who you are)
SOME OF MY FAVORITE COLLEGE ESSAYS. As I noted earlier, your response to essay, any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal . But sometimes it’s helpful to hear about other essays that students have submitted. Thesis On Smoking Cigarettes! Do remember, though, that the most important thing about the scientific essay is that it should be something only you could write! Here are some examples and snippets from the most memorable essays I have read in over twenty years as a college advisor. You’ll see that they paint a vivid and personal picture of the writer. My all-time favorite college essay was a student’s account of his work at on smoking cigarettes, the local hardware store, and what it meant to him to take care of people’s basic home-and-garden needs. It was simple and straightforward; I knew him well by the time I finished reading the essay. A similar topic, another student’s after-school job, began, “Working in contrast essay prompts, a library today is not for statement, the faint of heart.” Really? I can’t wait to know why! An essay that began with “I am amazed by what I have learned about myself from children” was a superb and telling little gem about an bear essays unexpected experience with young children already feeling academic pressure.
Another great essay began with, “It is strange to be grateful for a fractured skull.” Don’t you want to read on? Another student wrote about her love of … triangles! Yet another focused on cigarettes the student’s life-long love of reading. A lover of comparison essay, art history who volunteered at the Rodin Sculpture Garden began her essay, “If I’m not at school or at home, I’m likely to be found working behind the Gates of Hell.” A student of thesis on smoking cigarettes, Thai and prompts Jewish heritage focused on his “food-centric background” in on smoking, both cultures. And finally, who could resist an essay (about a student’s family forays into intellectual curiosity and essay experimentation) that began, “The baking sheet slides into the oven, pushed by my mother’s careful hands—and on thesis on smoking it rest a dozen wadded-up balls of Kleenex, half fresh, half used.” The essays from which all of the for high above points are excerpted could fit neatly into one or another of the thesis statement Common App prompts! Alice Kleeman served as the college advisor for 20 years in the College and Career Center of Menlo-Atherton High School, a public high school of 2,400 students in the San Francisco Bay Area. She also taught for 12 summers on paper for high school the faculty of the College Board’s Summer Admission Institute for new admission officers.
In her retirement, she volunteers her college-counseling services in a variety of not-for-profit settings. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Grown Flown | All Rights Reserved |
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alfie kohn homework published by the Teachers.Net community. Editor in Chief. Regular contributor to the Gazette. © 2007 by Alfie Kohn. Reprinted from NAESP Principal January/February 2007 with the author's permission. February 1, 2008. It becomes even more curious, for thesis statement, that matter, in format of research paper light of three other facts: The negative effects of homework are well known. Statement? They include children’s frustration and exhaustion, lack of time for other activities, and possible loss of interest in learning. Many parents lament the impact of homework on their relationship with their children; they may also resent having to essay, play the role of enforcer and worry that they will be criticized either for not being involved enough with the homework or for becoming too involved. The positive effects of homework are largely mythical. In preparation for a book on the topic, I’ve spent a lot of time sifting through the research. The results are nothing short of stunning.
For starters, there is absolutely no evidence of any academic benefit from assigning homework in elementary or middle school. For younger students, in thesis statement on smoking fact, there isn’t even a correlation between whether children do homework (or how much they do) and any meaningful measure of achievement. At the high school level, the correlation is weak and tends to disappear when more sophisticated statistical measures are applied. Meanwhile, no study has ever substantiated the belief that homework builds character or teaches good study habits. More homework is being piled on children despite the absence of its value.
Over the last quarter-century the burden has increased most for the youngest children, for whom the evidence of positive effects isn’t just dubious; it’s nonexistent. It’s not as though most teachers decide now and then that a certain lesson really ought to continue after school is over because meaningful learning is so likely to result from such an assignment that it warrants the intrusion on family time. Homework in most schools isn’t limited to those occasions when it seems appropriate and important. Rather, the point of departure seems to contrast essay, be: “We’ve decided ahead of time that children will have to do something every night (or several times a week). Later on we’ll figure out what to make them do.” What parents and teachers need is support from administrators who are willing to challenge the conventional wisdom. They need principals who question the slogans that pass for arguments: that homework creates a link between school and family (as if there weren’t more constructive ways to on smoking cigarettes, make that connection!), or that it “reinforces” what students were taught in class (a word that denotes the repetition of rote behaviors, not the development of understanding), or that it teaches children self-discipline and grizzly essays, responsibility (a claim for which absolutely no evidence exists).
Above all, principals need to help their faculties see that the most important criterion for judging decisions about homework (or other policies, for that matter) is the impact they’re likely to have on students’ attitudes about on smoking cigarettes what they’re doing. Contract Comparison Essay? “Most of what homework is doing is driving kids away from learning,” says education professor Harvey Daniels. Let’s face it: Most children dread homework, or at best see it as something to be gotten through. Thesis Statement On Smoking Cigarettes? Thus, even if it did provide other benefits, they would have to be weighed against its likely effect on kids’ love of learning. So what’s a thoughtful principal to do? Educate yourself and share what you’ve learned with teachers, parents, and central office administrators.
Make sure you know what the contrast research really says – that there is no reason to thesis statement, believe that children would be at any disadvantage in terms of their academic learning or life skills if they had much less homework, or even none at all. Whatever decisions are made should be based on scientific revolution fact rather than folk wisdom. Thesis Statement? Rethink standardized “homework policies.” Requiring teachers to give a certain number of minutes of homework every day, or to make assignments on contract essay the same schedule every week (for example, x minutes of math on Tuesdays and Thursdays) is a frank admission that homework isn’t justified by a given lesson, much less is it a response to what specific kids need at a specific time. Such policies sacrifice thoughtful instruction in order to achieve predictability, and they manage to do a disservice not only to students but, when imposed from on smoking above, to teachers as well. Reduce the contract amount – but don’t stop there. Many parents are understandably upset with how much time their children have to spend on thesis cigarettes homework. At a minimum, make sure that teachers aren’t exceeding district guidelines and that they aren’t chronically underestimating how long it takes students to complete the assignments. (As one mother told me, “It’s cheating to say this is 20 minutes of homework if only your fastest kid can complete it in that time.”) Then work on reducing the amount of homework irrespective of such guidelines and expectations so that families, not schools, decide how they will spend most of their evenings. Quantity, however, is not the only issue that needs to be addressed. Some assignments, frankly, aren’t worth even five minutes of a student’s time.
Too many first graders are forced to clip words from phd thesis magazines that begin with a given letter of the thesis statement on smoking alphabet. Bear? Too many fifth graders have to color in an endless list of factor pairs on graph paper. Too many eighth graders spend their evenings inching their way through dull, overstuffed, committee-written textbooks, one chapter at a time. Teachers should be invited to reflect on thesis statement on smoking cigarettes whether any given example of homework will help students think deeply about questions that matter. What philosophy of writing, teaching, what theory of learning, lies behind each assignment? Does it seem to assume that children are meaning makers -- or empty vessels? Is learning regarded as a process that’s mostly active or passive?
Is it about wrestling with ideas or mindlessly following directions? Change the default. Thesis Statement? Ultimately, it’s not enough just to phd thesis writing chennai, have less homework or even better homework. We should change the fundamental expectation in our schools so that students are asked to take schoolwork home only when a there’s a reasonable likelihood that a particular assignment will be beneficial to statement cigarettes, most of them. When that’s not true, they should be free to spend their after-school hours as they choose. The bottom line: No homework except on those occasions when it’s truly necessary. This, of course, is a reversal of the current default state, which amounts to an endorsement of homework for its own sake, regardless of the content, a view that simply can’t be justified. Ask the kids. Contrast Essay? Find out what students think of homework and thesis cigarettes, solicit their suggestions – perhaps by distributing anonymous questionnaires. Contrast? Many adults simply assume that homework is useful for promoting learning without even inquiring into the experience of the learners themselves!
Do students find that homework really is useful? Why or why not? Are certain kinds better than others? How does homework affect their desire to learn? What are its other effects on their lives, and on their families? Suggest that teachers assign only what they design.
In most cases, students should be asked to do only what teachers are willing to create themselves, as opposed to prefabricated worksheets or generic exercises photocopied from textbooks. Also, it rarely makes sense to give the same assignment to all students in thesis statement cigarettes a class because it’s unlikely to be beneficial for most of them. Those who already understand the dating concept will be wasting their time, and thesis statement, those who don’t understand will become increasingly frustrated. There is format of research paper for high no perfect assignment that will stimulate every student because one size simply doesn’t fit all. On those days when homework really seems necessary, teachers should create several assignments fitted to different interests and capabilities. But it’s better to give no homework to anyone than the same homework to everyone. Use homework as an opportunity to involve students in decision-making. Statement Cigarettes? One way to judge the grizzly bear quality of a classroom is by the extent to which students participate in making choices about their learning. The best teachers know that children learn how to make good decisions by making decisions, not by thesis cigarettes following directions.
Students should have something to say about what they’re going to learn and the circumstances under which they’ll learn it, as well as how (and when) their learning will be evaluated, how the room will be set up, how conflicts will be resolved, and a lot more. What is true of education in contract comparison essay general is true of homework in thesis on smoking cigarettes particular. At least two investigators have found that the contrast essay most impressive teachers (as defined by thesis on smoking cigarettes various criteria) tend to involve students in decisions about assignments rather than simply telling them what they’ll have to do at home. Contrast Prompts? A reasonable first question for a parent to ask upon seeing a homework assignment is “How much say did the thesis statement on smoking cigarettes kids have in determining how this had to essay scientific revolution, be done, and on what schedule, and whether it really needed to statement cigarettes, be completed at format of research paper school home in the first place?” A discussion about whether homework might be useful (and why) can be valuable in thesis statement on smoking cigarettes its own right. If opinions are varied, the question of what to do when everyone doesn’t agree – take a vote? keep talking until we reach consensus? look for format paper school, a compromise? – develops social skills as well as intellectual growth. Thesis Statement? And that growth occurs precisely because the teacher asked rather than told. Teachers who consult with their students on contrast essay a regular basis would shake their heads vigorously were you to suggest that kids will always say no to homework – or to anything else that requires effort. It’s just not true, they’ll tell you. When students are treated with respect, when the assignments are worth doing, most kids relish a challenge. Thesis Cigarettes? If, on the other hand, students groan about, or try to phd thesis, avoid, homework, it’s generally because they get too much of it, or because it’s assigned thoughtlessly and thesis cigarettes, continuously, or simply because they had nothing to say about it.
The benefits of scientific, even high-quality assignments are limited if students feel “done to” instead of “worked with.” Help teachers move away from grading. Your faculty may need your support, encouragement, and practical suggestions to help them abandon a model in which assignments are checked off or graded, where the point is to enforce compliance, and toward a model in which students explain and explore with one another what they’ve done -- what they liked and thesis on smoking, disliked about the book they read, what they’re struggling with, what new questions they came up with. Revolution? As the thesis eminent educator Martin Haberman observed, homework in the best classrooms “is not checked – it is shared.” If students conclude that there’s no point in spending time on argumentative assignments that aren’t going to be collected or somehow recorded, that’s not an argument for setting up bribes and threats and a climate of distrust; it’s an statement, indictment of the homework itself. Essay? Experiment. Ask teachers who are reluctant to rethink their long-standing reliance on traditional homework to see what happens if, during a given week or curriculum unit, they tried assigning none. Surely anyone who believes that homework is beneficial should be willing to test that assumption by cigarettes investigating the consequences of its absence. What are the effects of a moratorium on students’ achievement, on essay on online their interest in learning, on statement on smoking their moods and comparison essay, the resulting climate of the classroom? Likewise, the school as a whole can try out a new policy, such as the change in default that I’ve proposed, on a tentative basis before committing to it permanently. Principals deal with an statement, endless series of scientific revolution, crises; they’re called upon to resolve complaints, soothe wounded egos, negotiate solutions, try to thesis statement cigarettes, keep everyone happy, and on online, generally make the trains (or, rather, buses) run on statement on smoking cigarettes time.
In such a position there is a strong temptation to avoid new initiatives that call the contract status quo into statement cigarettes, question. Considerable gumption is required to take on an issue like homework, particularly during an era when phrases like “raising the bar” and essay, “higher standards” are used to rationalize practices that range from foolish to inappropriate to hair-raising. But of course a principal’s ultimate obligation is to thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, do what’s right by contract the children, to protect them from thesis harmful mandates and argumentative on online dating, practices that persist not because they’re valuable but merely because they’re traditional. For anyone willing to thesis statement on smoking, shake things up in order to argumentative, do what makes sense, beginning a conversation about on smoking cigarettes homework is a very good place to start. We are awash in articles and books that claim homework is beneficial – or simply take the revolution existence or value of homework for granted and merely offer suggestions for how it ought to be assigned, or what techniques parents should use to make children complete it. Here are some resources that question the statement on smoking conventional assumptions about the subject in an effort to stimulate meaningful thinking and conversation. Barber, Bill. “Homework Does Not Belong on the Agenda for Educational Reform.” Educational Leadership , May 1986: 55-57. Bennett, Sara, and Nancy Kalish. The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It (New York: Crown, 2006). Buell, John. Closing the Book on Homework: Enhancing Public Education and Freeing Family Time . (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004).
Hinchey, Patricia. “Rethinking Homework.” MASCD [Missouri Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development] Fall Journal , December 1995: 13-17. Kohn, Alfie. The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2006). Kralovec, Etta, and John Buell. The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning (Boston: Beacon Press, 2000). Samway, Katharine. “’And You Run and You Run to Catch Up with the Sun, But It’s Sinking.’” Language Arts 63 (1986): 352-57.
Waldman, Ayelet. “Homework Hell.” Salon.com. October 22, 2005. © 2007 by Alfie Kohn. Reprinted from grizzly bear essays NAESP Principal January/February 2007 with the author's permission. This article may be downloaded, reproduced, and distributed without permission as long as each copy includes this notice along with citation information (i.e., name of the periodical in which it originally appeared, date of publication, and thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, author's name). Format Of Research? Permission must be obtained in order to reprint this article in thesis cigarettes a published work or in order to offer it for sale in any form. Phd Thesis? For more information, please see www.alfiekohn.org. About Alfie Kohn. Alfie Kohn writes and speaks widely on human behavior, education, and parenting. The latest of his eleven books are THE HOMEWORK MYTH: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing (2006) and UNCONDITIONAL PARENTING: Moving from Rewards and Punishments to thesis on smoking, Love and Reason (2005). Of his earlier titles, the best known are PUNISHED BY REWARDS: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and Other Bribes (1993), NO CONTEST: The Case Against Competition (1986), and THE SCHOOLS OUR CHILDREN DESERVE: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and Tougher Standards (1999).
Kohn has been described in Time magazine as perhaps the country's most outspoken critic of education's fixation on grades [and] test scores. His criticisms of essay scientific, competition and rewards have helped to shape the thinking of educators -- as well as parents and managers -- across the country and abroad. Kohn has been featured on hundreds of thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, TV and radio programs, including the Today show and two appearances on Oprah; he has been profiled in the Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times , while his work has been described and debated in many other leading publications. Kohn lectures widely at universities and to school faculties, parent groups, and corporations. In addition to speaking at phd thesis chennai staff development seminars and keynoting national education conferences on thesis statement a regular basis, he conducts workshops for teachers and administrators on prompts various topics. Among them: Motivation from the Inside Out: Rethinking Rewards, Assessment, and Learning and Beyond Bribes and on smoking cigarettes, Threats: Realistic Alternatives to Controlling Students' Behavior. The latter corresponds to his book BEYOND DISCIPLINE: From Compliance to on online dating, Community (ASCD, 1996), which he describes as a modest attempt to cigarettes, overthrow the entire field of classroom management. Argumentative On Online Dating? Kohn's various books have been translated into Chinese, Japanese, Korean, German, Swedish, Dutch, Portuguese, Hebrew, Thai, Malaysian, and Italian. He has also contributed to publications ranging from the Journal of Education to Ladies Home Journal , and from the thesis cigarettes Nation to essay, the Harvard Business Review (Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work). His efforts to make research in human behavior accessible to a general audience have also been published in the Atlantic Monthly , Parents , and thesis on smoking cigarettes, Psychology Today . His many articles on education include eleven widely reprinted cover essays in Phi Delta Kappan : Caring Kids: The Role of the format of research paper school Schools (March 1991), Choices for thesis on smoking, Children: Why and How to Let Students Decide (Sept.
1993), The Truth About Self-Esteem (Dec. 1994), How Not to essay prompts, Teach Values: A Critical Look at Character Education (Feb. 1997), Only for statement on smoking, My Kid: How Privileged Parents Undermine School Reform (April 1998), Fighting the Tests (Jan. 2001), The 500-Pound Gorilla (Oct. 2002), Test Today, Privatize Tomorrow (April 2004), Challenging Students -- And How to Have More of Them (Nov. 2004), Abusing Research (Sept. 2006), and Who's Cheating Whom? (Oct.
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Thesis statement Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health Topic
Essay Paper on Air Pollution in Thailand. by James Douglas and Kelly McNight. Air pollution in Thailand is considered to be one of the most serious environmental problems in thesis cigarettes, the country. Especially severe are the implications of the phd thesis writing chennai problem for people who live in cities, where the level of air pollution is thesis on smoking, substantially higher. The main air pollution contributors are power plants, factories, motor vehicles, forest fires, agricultural burning and contrast, open cooking. As a result, health concerns have increased and statement, became an alarming signs to take necessary procedures. Moreover, the argumentative non-health implications are significant as well. They include loss of productivity, damage of ecosystem and infrastructure. As for global impacts, they include acid rains, global warming, and thesis statement, damage to stratospheric ozone.
Thus, air pollution is a very significant problem in format of research paper, Thailand and thesis on smoking cigarettes, needs to be resolved immediately. In Thailand, the main responsibility of air quality monitoring is essay, put upon the Pollution Control department (PCD). Statement Cigarettes. It establishes standards and makes recommendations as to measures needed to be taken to improve environmental situation. Along with Government, PCD had contributed much to resolve the problem of air pollution. However, there is still much to essay on online dating, be done. The main ways to fix the air pollution issue are: Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles, which are the most significant pollutants. On Smoking. Improving public transport and traffic management. Argumentative Essay. This requires increasing the thesis cigarettes number of priority bus lanes and the development of alternative transportation, such as SkyTrains. Adopting legislature that obliges industries to reduce emission. Strengthening institutional effectiveness by improving coordination among agencies and building capacities at the local level; Broadening public involvement in air quality management; Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); Expanding monitoring policies;
The main obstacles on the way of implementation those policies and means: High cost of acquisition and essay on online, implementation of thesis on smoking, advanced cleaning technologies and technologies that reduce emission. Resistance on behalf of corporations to implementation of those technologies because of their high costs. Essay. Possible public indifference and the absence of desire to cooperate in order to improve environmental issues. Time needed to implement necessary environmental programs and technologies. Governmental delays and unwillingness to take actions; absence of thesis on smoking, support from public organizations. All those obstacles, however, may be easily overcome given that government take immediate and persistent action in format of research for high school, implementing necessary programs, educating population and encouraging private sector to foster all governmental initiatives and express those initiatives themselves.
1. Statement Cigarettes. Tightening emission standards for motor vehicles. According to public perception polls on the issue of air pollution held in Bangkok, the majority of residents ask (90 % of those the total number of respondents) named motor vehicles the main source of contrast prompts, air pollution. Second place (8% of respondents) took construction road repairs and the third – garbage burning. (Impacts and Environmental management in Thailand, 2002) Thus, we see that motor vehicles are significant contributor to the overall air pollution. In order to improve the situation and decrease the level of thesis cigarettes, emission produced y cars and motorcycles, the dating Thai government needs to foster efficient and less pollute vehicles on one hand, and encourage citizens to use those vehicles on the other hand. As for the former, official authorities have to adopt higher emission standards for automobiles and what is mostly important to help companies to meet them. It can be done in the following way: Tax privileges for companies that produce certain amount of less pollute vehicles; To ensure Governmental orders for those vehicles; To provide financial support for companies who work out special technologies that facilitate the process of creating less pollute vehicles. To encourage citizens to widely use those vehicles, the Government needs to: Launch special public campaign that would educate citizens informing about benefits they could get buying less pollute vehicles.
This campaign might include TV commercials, media articles, public speeches etc. Tax reduction or tax elimination for those conscious citizens who use those cars and motorcycles. The government can also provide special grants or licenses for companies who produce special vehicles and intend to cigarettes, sell them abroad. Below, the short overview of special technologies that can reduce the amount of emission produced by vehicles and other necessary procedures pertaining to vehicles polluting capacities is provided. First of bear, all, there exist new technologies, such as catalytic converters, that are able to thesis on smoking cigarettes, make gasoline vehicles engines more efficient and grizzly bear, less polluting. The implementation of more stringent tail pipe emissions standards will reduce PM (particular matter) emissions for new diesel vehicles. In fact, there exist Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards of diesel vehicle emissions. The indicators of these standards of emissions are quite high. Thesis Statement. To meet them, it is necessary that all diesel engines have direct fuel injections and computerized engine maintenance system. Another alternative is to increase the production of four-stroke motorcycles, which are less polluting and have better fuel-efficiency than those who have just two strokes. In fact, nowadays, the essay highly used are two-stroke engines, which are extremely dangerous.
It is well known that two-stroke engines have only one revolution and must use a mixture of oil and fuel that burns incompletely. Then almost 25% of that oil and fuel is spit out, unburned, through exhaust. The use of two-stroke vehicles can seriously endanger the flourishing of Thai tourist industry. Therefore, four-strokes engine production is very important. The four-stroke versions are much cleaner. The operating cost, however, may be lower as they are more fuel-efficient. Along with stricter and higher emissions standards for thesis on smoking cigarettes vehicles, it is also necessary for the Government to tighten vehicle maintenance and inspection policies. It means that, for instance, every city should have a special agency that is the head responsible for checking all the vehicles intended for public transportation and those of private use. Emissions inspection and improving maintenance requirements, particularly for dating high-use diesel vehicles are significant issue. This kind of checking will ensure that a vehicle still can be used on the road without substantial danger for the citizens.
It is also absolutely necessary to ensure installation of smoke filtration equipment in vehicles. According to World Bank recommendations (2002), the Government also needs to require manufacturers to install exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles. Thesis Cigarettes. This will not increase cost of production substantially (just about by 2%), but will drastically reduce Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Nitrogen. It is also quite efficient to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel. Sulfur content of comparison, automotive diesel is thesis on smoking cigarettes, 2,000 ppm and format of research, the Clean Air Act requires reduction to 500 ppm by 2004– the norm used by many countries today. (World Bank, 2002) Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and resistant to corrosion. Sources of on smoking, lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities.
Thus, all the above recommendations will help to enhance vehicles emission reduction while encouraging people to widely use new less pollute vehicle in their day-to-day lives. 2. Improving public transportation management. The major problem with public transportation in Thailand is its low level of format of research, diversification and thus high level of those transportation vehicles that produce high levels of emission. The diversification means that buses should be complemented with railway vehicles including subways. Skytrain is an excellent low polluting alternative as well. Generally, in Bangkok all public transportation is run by Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and thesis on smoking cigarettes, Bangkok Transit System. Essays. The first one is in charge of all wheel transport, i.e. public buses. The second one takes care of Thailand light rail system.
Both report to the Ministry of Transport and Communications. To improve public transportation in Thailand, it is necessary to make the thesis statement cigarettes following steps: Increase the number of Euro2 buses running. Those are buses that have lower emission and higher speed. As BMTA reports, it has launched Euro 2 buses.
Yet, there are not enough of them to satisfy all public needs. Implement more bus lanes to decrease the pressure in peak times. In fact, the phd thesis writing Thailand Environmental Monitor suggests providing 12-corridor bus-lanes 110 km long. Moreover, it is also necessary to thesis on smoking, provide adequate sidewalks and bicycle lanes that will encourage people to use public transportation, carpool, and bicycle or just walk small distances. Implement mass rapid transit system. Interestingly that Thailand’s rail transportation, which dates back more than century, is extensive, covering 4,000 kilometers on three lines, intersecting in format of research paper, Bangkok. The system currently offers affordable transportation from the Malaysian border to northernmost provinces in the west.
Thus, it has good capacity. However, this capacity needs to be further developed into rapid transit system, which is able to substitute highly pollute bus transportation. Providing more trains and higher speed it can merely double the number of passengers transported. Develop Skytrain system. As BTS reports, the BTS Skytrain is the safest, most comfortable and convenient way to get around Bangkok. In service since December 5, 1999, it has transformed the face of public transportation in the Thai capital, offering both residents and on smoking, visitors a comfortable ride through central Bangkok lifting them above the chronic congestion, noise and pollution of the streets below. Not only Sky train is merely pollution free, it is writing, also very comfortable, quick and efficient. Thesis Cigarettes. The BTS Sky Train’s high-capacity operating system ensures almost no breakdowns and a virtual 100% punctuality. Each train can carry over 1,000 passengers while a similar number of people would use 800 cars. Thus BTS Skytrain is the most environmentally friendly mass transit system in Thailand.
Moreover, it is quite inexpensive and safe. Scientific. However, the main problem pertaining to this means of transportation is that there are not so many lines where it can be used. Thus, the primary task of the Government regarding the environmental issue of cleaner air is extending Sky Train system and making this means of transportation more available for public use. It is an issue of crucial importance for the Government to statement, promote and assist in phd thesis chennai, production and launching of public transport, which is statement on smoking cigarettes, able to work using electricity, such as electric tricycle, electric bus, and electric-motorcycle. These kinds of products are not yet so much widely used and produced. Those are very commercial products. Format School. Therefore, they need special governmental care and support. Yet, since highly popularized and widely used, they can become serious “air saviors” as opposite to regular oil cars. In such away all the above procedures are able to improve public transportation management thus enhancing the issue of statement cigarettes, environmental safety, air pollution decrease in particular. 3. Of Research For High School. Adopting legislature obliging industries to reduce emission. It is thesis statement, very important for Government to scientific revolution, oblige industrial firms to cut their pollution levels.
Certainly, it requires substantial costs, because factories need to adopt cleaner production patterns, energy efficiency and thesis, advanced emissions control technologies. Yet, the problem might occur with small plants, which do not have enough financial resources to contrast prompts, afford such substantial investments. However, social responsibility issue, including the one of environment, is becoming more and more important. Therefore, all the companies need to realize that by cooperating with Government and on smoking, enhancing decrease in air pollution levels they are actually improving their public image and grizzly essays, provide wide market for their products or services. However, it is the primary task of Government to stimulate or reinforce the implementation of cleaning technologies. The incentives for industrial corporations to thesis, implement cleaning technologies may include:
Tax extension for a certain period; Tax reduction or tax privileges for implementing certain type of technology; Allowing faster depreciation; Granting certain political privileges; Encouraging cooperation among companies to provide patterns of scientific technology needed to be implemented in internal production processes. Such incentives might stimulate companies to work more efficiently and enhance further social responsibility. As for smaller companies, Government needs either support them financially directly or encourage bigger companies to provide certain help. Essay Prompts. It is also very helpful for Government to establish special fund that will accumulate money needed to acquire necessary technology and implement them in production. However, it is cigarettes, not only necessary to provide incentives for the companies, but also take serious measures to ultimately punish those who fail to comply with the overall governmental requirements. Those punishments might include: Here, it also necessary to mention that the level of lead should be substantially decreased. Lead is a great-white metal that is soft, malleable, ductile, and phd thesis chennai, resistant to corrosion. Sources of lead resulting in concentration in the air include industrial sources and crustal weathering of soils followed by fugitive dust emissions. Health effects from exposure to lead include brain and kidney damage, and learning disabilities.
As it was already mentioned, the second place as the major polluter according to public perception took the railroad construction. Thus, along with factories, construction industry is to be obliged to control dust on thesis on smoking, the roads as well. It should be the responsibility of those construction workers to argumentative on online dating, enhance road cleanness and dust control. In fact, here local inspections that provide special checking can be of great help. Thus, Government should necessarily provide relevant legislature that would oblige companies to implement pollution reduction technologies on statement cigarettes, one hand, and provide effective incentives and phd thesis chennai, support to facilitate the process of implementation of those technologies.
4. Thesis On Smoking. Strengthening institutional effectiveness. This issue contains the important implications of local government decentralization. Simply saying, in order to format paper for high school, enhance and improve institutional effectiveness and thus pursue environmental care it is necessary to: Improve the coordination between the agencies that have different function regarding the air pollution problems. Currently, Government agencies include: Pollution Control Department (PCD) Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) Department of Industrial Work (DIW) Department of Land Transport (DLT) Office of the thesis Commission of for the Management of Land Traffic (OCMLT) Expand local Government role.
It is not a secret that for a central government it is oftentimes very difficult to control all the programs and procedures concerning different environmental programs. Therefore, some delegation of comparison essay, authority should be distributed to the lower level in order to enhance efficiency of those environmental problems. 5. On Smoking Cigarettes. Broadening public involvement in air quality management. All Governmental efforts might turn absolutely useless if not providing public support and bear, assistance. Thus, it is a crucial task for the Government to ensure wide public involvement in thesis statement on smoking cigarettes, air quality management. This could be accomplished using the following means: Broad educational and scientific, informational programs, which were already mentioned.
They could increase public awareness about possible health danger of their own and what is statement on smoking cigarettes, even worse the health danger of their children. Schools and comparison, different educational institutions should play major role in this process. Moreover, it is absolutely necessary to establish required course that would discuss such a vulnerable issue as air pollution. Involvement of thesis statement, public communities in environmental programs. The local government should take active part in arranging and stimulating those programs. Examples of how the public can contribute include car-pooling using mass transit; walking; biking; using energy efficient appliances; utilizing air conditioners wisely with non-ozone depleting (Chlorofluorocarbons -free) refrigerants; regularly maintaining cars and making sure these meet emission standards; composting waste; planting trees; and contrast essay prompts, reporting smoke-belching vehicles to thesis, relevant authorities. Enforce the ban on contract, waste burning in cities. The Government needs to promote and public needs to adequately respond to an urgent need for waste recycling, composting and sanitary land filling. Support and collaborate with the thesis private sector, associations, independent groups and contrast, all categories of mass media to participate in public relations efforts and campaigns to educate and increase understanding and awareness of hazardous threats from pollutants in air, and thesis statement cigarettes, be informed of enforcement of laws against all categories of polluters. It is the primary task of Government to of research for high school, support study, research and training in technologies for control and eradication of polluted air, including improving and maintaining machinery to decrease air pollution.
This kind of on smoking cigarettes, studies should be highly taught within different communities and corporations. Phd Thesis Writing Chennai. Public awareness about thesis statement cigarettes safety issues should be increased using different kinds of meetings with medical staff. These meetings can be organized within local communities as not official ones. They can be also organized on the highest levels as different conferences and seminars to share the knowledge as to how improve public health, how to prevent different serious disasters associated with air pollution. This kind of conferences should be held not less than once a year and its result should be published and distributed.
Society must be engaged in the environmental activities. Yet, it is very hard to do when people do not know what kind of problems they are to face and writing, why those problems are so extremely serious. 6. Thesis On Smoking Cigarettes. Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) It has already been mentioned that one of the challenges on contract comparison essay, the way to thesis cigarettes, implement and develop different environmental issues, including air pollution is high cost. The main funding mechanism of different environmental programs is so-called Clean Development mechanism (CDM). CDM allows different countries – developing as well as developed – to work together to essay scientific revolution, achieve Kyoto protocol targets. (Kyoto protocol is an international agreement that obliges countries that signed it to take specific and serious measures to enhance environmental safety issues.) As Thailand Environment monitor reports, once the Kyoto protocol has been ratified internationally, and the CDM is operational, developing countries will be able to obtain funding for projects aimed at greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, while developed countries can use these emission reductions towards their Kyoto compliance limitations. Thailand’s GHG emission is expected to statement on smoking cigarettes, double by 2020. (Greenhouse gas is gas such as CO2, CH4, NO2, which increase global temperature by argumentative essay on online trapping solar electromagnetic radiation).
The bulk of thesis statement, greenhouse emissions are energy, agriculture, and waste sectors. Thus, they should become the primary focus of CDM initiatives. The efficient CDM strategy should include: Reducing CO2 in the energy sector; Converting CH4 from waste to energy; Sequestering CO2 through reforestation and afforestation activities. According to Thailand Environment Monitoring, in order for Thailand to engage and gain benefits from the CDM market, it is necessary to dating, do the following:
Create national CDM authority that would implement and control different CDM activities; To create special investment funds and to ensure transparent process of investment for all interested in CDM programs; Establish efficient mechanism that would ensure wide public participation in different CDM programs; Ensure that all investments made in CDM are in cigarettes, compliance with existing country’s environmental impact assessment requirements; Those procedures are needed to be undertaken in order for essay scientific the country to catch existing opportunities in the global market and on the worldwide arena. Kyoto Protocol, in fact, has serious implications for those countries that signed it. To be specific, if the country is the member of this Protocol, it has substantial privileges meaning that it is able to market own opportunities on one hand. However, on the other hand, all members of the agreement accept serious obligations and need to ensure the statement compliance with certain environmental requirements, which should not exceed given levels or given norms. 7. Expanding monitoring policies. Monitoring is a central issue in the policy of air quality management programs.
In order for the monitoring to be effective, it is necessary to: Establish extensive network of writing chennai, monitoring centers. Those centers might be established on the state level, as well as on the level of each particular city. Moreover, it is even better that each particular city has own monitoring center and is able to share its knowledge and statement on smoking, experience with the others. Central monitoring institution should provide coordination and control of all the rest monitoring centers around the country. It is essay scientific revolution, necessary for monitoring networks to provide frequent and relevant information upon any issues of concern in order to ensure in time quality control and measures. Otherwise, the on smoking efficiency of those networks is questionable. For instance, if there is a danger of format of research for high school, increased level of dangerous components in the air, public should be immediately informed to be able to thesis statement, save their health from such a disaster. Format Of Research For High School. Yet, it is important to emphasize that such information must be absolutely relevant and hundred percent proven.
Otherwise, it might cause unnecessary panic in on smoking, society and dating, undermine government’s capability to handle the situation. Finally, efficient monitoring should be based on constant public involvement. Simply saying, Government needs to ensure that wide audience has an statement on smoking cigarettes, access to monitoring center information and the latter can get a feedback from the people in the form of essay scientific revolution, different noticed alarming signs, different ideas how to cigarettes, improve existing situation, suggestions and comments. If this kind of two-way communication with society is ensured, it will help not only to revolution, increase the thesis statement efficiency of monitoring problems, but also engage public into active participation in environmental problems, air quality management in particular. Air pollution in Thailand is one of the most serious environmental issues. Comparison Essay. High levels of pollution endanger public health, decrease efficiency in production, and statement on smoking, provoke serious climatic changes on the global level. Therefore, this issue should be resolved immediately. For the Government of Thailand, it is important to undertake the following steps to resolve and improve the situation with the air quality within the country: Adopt relevant legislature to reduce vehicles emission and to oblige companies to implement cleaning technology or technologies that reduce dangerous emission substantially; Encourage production and use of less pollute vehicles, such as four-stroke motorcycles.
Effective public transportation management; Reduce the amount of lead in gasoline; Engage public in different environmental programs through vast system of contrast essay, education and information; Ensure effective CDM implementation; Develop broad monitoring sysstem.
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Thesis statement about smoking cigarettes | Thesis Statement
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