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10 Linux/Unix Bash and KSH Shell Job Control Examples. L inux and Unix are multitasking operating systems i.e. a system that can run multiple tasks (process) during the paper on reliability same period of time. In this new blog series, I am going to list the Linux and Unix job control commands that you can use for paper multitasking with the Bash or Korn or POSIX shell. Job control is research, nothing but the city application ability to stop/suspend the execution of research paper processes (commands) and continue/resume their execution as per your requirements. Of Research Paper! This is done using your operating system and research on reliability, shell such as bash/ksh or POSIX shell.

Who provides a facility to control jobs? The Bash / Korn shell, or POSIX shell provides a facility to control jobs. Essay Scientific! Your shell keeps a table of current jobs, called job table. When you type command the shell assigns a jobID (also known as JOB_SPEC). A jobID or JOB_SPEC is nothing but small integer numbers. #1: Creating your first Linux/Unix job. I am going to run a command called xeyes that displays two googly eyes on screen, enter: Fig.01: Running the xeyes command in the background. I started a job in the background with an ampersand (#038;).

The shell prints a line that looks like the on reliability following: In this example, two numbers are output as follows. [1] : The xeyes job, which was started in the background, was job number 1. Phd Thesis! 6891 : A process ID of research paper job number 1. I am going to start a few more jobs: ## Start a text editor, system load average display for X, and sleep command ## gedit /tmp/hello.c xload sleep 100000 A brief description of each field is college essay, given below: A plus sign ( + ) identifies the default or current job. A minus sign ( - ) identifies the research paper previous job. Running The job is currently running and has not been suspended by a signal. You can also use ps command to phd thesis writing list the processes running on the system: Hit the [Ctrl]-[Z] key or use kill command as follows: kill -s stop PID. In this example, start ping command and use the on reliability Ctrl-Z key sequence to stop the mla format letter essay ping command job: Animated gif 01: Suspending ping command job. #4: Resume suspended/stopped job in the foreground. Let us resume or bring stopped ping job to the foreground and make it the current job with the help of fg command.

The syntax is research paper on reliability, as follows: ## Job id number 5 for ping command ## fg %5. I can also state any job whose command line begins with the string #8220;ping#8221;: ## %String ## fg %ping. #5: Resume suspended/stopped job in essay revolution, the background. In this example, I am going to update all installed packages on Red Hat or CentOS Linux production server using yum command background job: # yum -y update /root/patch.log However, due to some reason (say load issue) I decided to research stop this job for 20 minutes: # kill -s stop %yum. Scientific! Restart a stopped background yum process with bg. To stop/kill a yum command process, enter the following kill command whose jobID was 7: #7 Why does shell kill off all my background jobs when I logout?

In this example, I am going to start pdfwriter.py job to generate pdf files for this site in bulk: /scripts/www/pdfwriter.py --profile=faq --type=clean --header=logo --footer-left nixCraft is GIT UL++++ W+++ C++++ M+ e+++ d- --footer-right Page [of] of [total] As soon as I logout from research, shell, pdfwriter.py job will be killed by my shell. To overcome this problem use disown shell builting command to essay revolution tell the shell not to send a HUP signal, type: #8 Prevent job from research, being killed on logout using an essay on disadvantages of nuclear external command called nohup. To find the the process ID of the most recently executed background (asynchronous) command, use bash shell special parameter $! $ echo PID of most recently executed background job - $! The wait command waits for given process ID or jobID (job specification) , and reports its termination status. The syntax is paper, as follows: /path/to/large-job/command/foo wait $! /path/to/next/job/that-is-dependents/on-foo-command/bar. Here is one of my working script: /scripts/www/pdfwriter.py --profile=blog --type=clean --header=logo --footer-left nixCraft is phd thesis writing chennai, GIT UL++++ W+++ C++++ M+ e+++ d- --footer-right Page [of] of [total] Linux and research on reliability, Unix job control command list summary. A note about shell built-in and external commands. Run the contract following type command to find out whether given command is research paper on reliability, internal or external: type -a fg bg jobs disown. Writing Chennai! In almost all cases, you need to use shell built-in commands. All external commands such as /usr/bin/fg or /usr/bin/jobs works in a different shell environment, and can not use parent shell's environment.

I hope you enjoyed this blog post series (rss feed) and I suggest that you read the research on reliability following for more information: I am planning to add more in-depth tutorial in this series. Please let me know if you need to see specific topic in the comment section below. The author is the mla format letter essay creator of nixCraft and a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for on reliability the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and contract comparison essay, space research, and the nonprofit sector. Follow him on Twitter, Facebook, Google+. Share this on (or read 10 comments/add one below): Your support makes a big difference: I have a small favor to ask. More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and advertising revenues are not sufficient to cover my operating costs. So you can see why I need to research on reliability ask for scientific your help.

The nixCraft, takes a lot of research on reliability my time and hard work to mla format cover produce. If everyone who reads nixCraft, who likes it, contributes to support it with donations: Very helpful. Thank you. Good Tips. Thanks to share.I knew the nohup but not the paper awesome the #8220;disown my son#8221; ! thx miker too. Great great post ! Awesome tips. Didn#8217;t know about jobs or disown!

Thanks. You can also use #8220;disown#8221; to detach an existing job from the shell so that it is not subject to cuny application essay SIGHUP when logging out. It#8217;s wonderful and certainly helps Linux power users and administrators. Keep up the paper on reliability good work. Thanks.

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Research paper on reliability - Urban Cross Grenoble

resume s3 usb device xHCI controllers must implement at research on reliability least one xHCI Supported Protocol Capability structure for essay scientific USB 2.0. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64.

Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) controllers must implement at least one xHCI supported protocol capability structure for USB 2.0 as described in section 7.2 of the xHCI specification. This affects backward compatibility with USB 2.0. Device.BusController.UsbController.MaintainDeviceStateOnResumeS1andS3. USB host controller must maintain device state on on reliability, resume from S1 or S3. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86.

Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. For the host controller to maintain the essay scientific device state, the USB host controller must not issue a USB bus reset on a system sleep state transition from S3 to research on reliability, S0 or from S1 to S0. USB host controllers that are integrated or embedded into format school, the south bridge chipset must decouple the USB bus reset from the PCI bus reset to reduce resume time. Resume operations from S1 or S3 must not generate USB bus resets.

A USB bus reset is a reset signal that is research on reliability, sent over the USB bus to contract essay, USB devices that are connected to the USB host controller. Systems that have a USB keyboard attached are allowed to perform USB bus resets to research paper, unlock the system by using a password when the system resumes from S3. For security purposes, the cuny college application BIOS in a mobile system is allowed to paper, issue a USB bus reset if the system is college application essay, attached to a docking station that has a hard disk drive (HDD) that is password-locked on first resume. A reset of the research paper on reliability HDD password is allowed whether or not the phd thesis writing chennai mobile system is docked. The following scenarios are allowed:

Undocked systems with a password-enabled HDD. Docked systems with a password-enabled HDD. Addition or removal of an paper on reliability HDD. If the docking station does not have a native HDD or the docking station does not have a password, the BIOS must not issue a USB bus reset. It is acceptable to allow the on disadvantages of nuclear controller to lose power in S3 when the on reliability system is on battery power. See the essay scientific revolution Enhanced Host Controller Interface Specification for Universal Serial Bus, Revision 1.0, Appendix A.

This requirement does not apply to systems that support Connected Standby. Device.BusController.UsbController.MustResumeWithoutForcedReset. All USB host controllers must work properly upon resume from sleep, hibernation, or restart without a forced reset. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and research on reliability Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64.

All USB host controllers work properly upon resume from sleep, hibernation, or restart without a forced reset of the USB host controller. A reset of the entire USB host controller results in significantly increased time that it takes for all USB devices to become available after system resume since there could be only one device at essay address 0 at a time, this enumeration has to on reliability, be serialized for all USB devices on the bus. We have also seen that resetting the host controller can lead to phd thesis chennai, an illegal SE1 signal state on paper, some host controllers, which in turn can cause some USB devices to format paper, hang or drop off the bus. Research Paper On Reliability! Moreover, devices cannot maintain any private state across sleep resume as that state will be lost on reset. Device.BusController.UsbController.PreserveDeviceStateAfterDisableEnable. USB controller must preserve device states after a disable and re-enable. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM.

Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. If a USB controller is essay family, disabled and on reliability then re-enabled, all devices that were attached to cuny city college essay, the controller before the USB controller was disabled are required to be present after the USB controller is re-enabled. Device.BusController.UsbController.UsbifCertification. USB host controller is USB IF certified.

Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for on reliability desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. USB host controllers must pass USB Implementers Forum (IF) testing. For details, see the following link: USB Type-C PD silicon (e.g., PD controller) must implement version 1.1 of the USB Type-C spec or higher and revision 2.0 v1.1 of the PD spec or higher and must be certified according to letter, the USB-IF’s USB-C product testing matrix.

Note: Since USB-IF is currently not certifying controllers for Windows on ARM systems, the Windows on ARM controllers are exempt from needing to paper on reliability, get full USB-IF certification. Essay! Instead, the WoA controllers are expected to research, pass all Windows Hardware Certification tests which include eventing, loop back, and registers tests that get run as part of USB-IF certification. Device.BusController.UsbController.UsbTypeCAltModeCertification. USB Type-C Alternate Mode sub-systems are certified with their respective organizations. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and college essay Education) x64. Windows 10 for research paper desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and scientific revolution Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64.

If the USB Type-C PD silicon (e.g., PD controller) supports an Alternate Mode Standard and the industry group that owns that Standard has a corresponding certification, the silicon must get that certification, in addition to USB-IF certification. For example, if USB Type-C PD silicon supports DisplayPort Alternate Mode in paper, addition to USB and PD, then that silicon must be certified by VESA for the DisplayPort functionality, in addition to the USB-IF for writing USB and PD functionality. Certification for vendor-specific Alternate Modes is not required. Device.BusController.UsbController.UsbTypeCUCM. USB Type-C Sub-systems support UCM. Windows 10 for research paper on reliability desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for cuny city college application desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and research Education) x86.

Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. USB Type-C PD silicon (e.g., PD controller) that run on a Windows 10 system and format paper do not implement UCSI must ship with a 3 rd -party UCMCx client Driver. 3 rd -party UCMCx client drivers must be implemented as per research, the following MSDN documentation: The UCMCx client driver is required to the implement the following APIs:

If the system or controller supports Power Delivery, the following additional requirements apply: If the system or controller exposes dual role ports, the following additional requirements apply: Device.BusController.UsbController.UsbTypeCUCSI. USB Type-C Sub-systems that support UCSI implement it correctly. Windows 10 for writing chennai desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and research on reliability Education) x64. Windows 10 for phd thesis desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86.

Windows Server 2016 x64. USB Type-C PD silicon (e.g., PD controller) that runs on Windows 10 and implements its PD/USB Type-C state machine in an Embedded Controller must implement UCSI v1.0 (or later). In addition, it must implement the following optional features from UCSI spec. The system or controller must support the following notifications within this command: Supported Provider Capabilities Change. Negotiated Power Level Change. The system or controller must support the following Connector Status Changes within this command: Supported Provider Capabilities Change. Negotiated Power Level Change. The system or controller must support the following field in GET_CONNECTOR_STATUS Status structure. Device.BusController.UsbController.TestedUsingMicrosoftUsbStack.

xHCI controllers must be tested with Microsoft's xHCI Stack installed. Windows 10 for on reliability desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and format of research for high Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64.

Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) controllers must be tested with Microsoft's xHCI stack installed and enabled on a Windows system. Support for paper on reliability all USB transfer types (ISoch, Interrupt, and Bulk) will be checked to ensure basic compatibility. Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciAc64Bit. xHCI controllers must set the AC64-bit in writing chennai, the HCCPARAMS register to 1. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for on reliability desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64.

xHCI controllers must set the AC64-bit in the HCCPARAMS register to 1 as described in Section 5.3.6 of the xHCI specification. Paper For High School! Therefore, the controller must support: 64-bit addressing, described in section 5.3.6. 64-bit register access, described in section 5.1. Design notes : Checking for AC64 to on reliability, be set is a simple register check in the compliance driver. Of Research! To test 64-bit addressing, we will need to paper on reliability, require the letter WLK user's client system to paper on reliability, have at cuny city least 6 GB of RAM.

The test will use MmAllocateContiguousMemorySpecifyCache to get physical memory above 4 GB. Paper! It will validate in essay, some way that the research controller can access this memory area. The test will try writing one or more registers using a 64-bit register access and reading back using 64-bit register access to confirm that registers are updated correctly. City Essay! An example of a reasonable register to on reliability, test is: Event Ring Segment Table Base Address Register (ERSTBA) (section 5.5.2.3.2). If AC64 is not set, there is nothing to test. Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciAddInCardsMapPortsConsistently. xHCI add-in cards must map USB 3.0 and essay USB 2.0 ports consistently. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86.

Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. Consistent USB 2.0 and research paper USB 3.0 port mapping is writing, required to research on reliability, help the operating system to effectively manage the ports. Note: This requirement only applies to add-in cards because port mapping for integrated xHCI controllers should be performed via Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI). For more information, see the SYSFUND 226 requirement. For Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) add-in cards (where add-in card is defined as a card that is not integrated onto the motherboard), the essay of nuclear complexity of paper on reliability, this requirement varies significantly depending on whether the add-in card contains any internal (integrated or embedded) hubs. If there are no internal hubs, then the port numbering must correlate as given in xHCI v1.x specification.

That is, the first USB 3.0 port must be connected to the same connector as the first 2.0 port, the essay second with the second, and so on. For example, if the USB 2.0 ports are numbered 1 and 2, and the USB 3.0 ports are numbered 3 and 4, ports 1 and 3 must map to the same connector, and ports 2 and research paper on reliability 4 must map to the same connector. Phd Thesis Chennai! For more information, see the xHCI v1.x Specification, sections 4.24.2.1 and 4.24.2.2. If the host does not have any internal hubs, then the research remaining text of this requirement can be ignored. However, if there are internal hubs (either integrated or embedded), then the requirement is more involved. Note that strictly speaking, XHCI specification does not allow such hubs for writing add-in cards because the port mapping information cannot be communicated to the software via ACPI. But through this requirement, we are allowing such hubs and defining the required port mapping. On Reliability! However, this mechanism has some limitations and mla format cover it does not allow arbitrary configurations that are allowed for integrated controllers when described by ACPI.

For add-in cards, xHCI host controllers may implement integrated hubs and/or embedded hubs as defined in xHCI specification sections 4.24.2.1 and 4.24.2.2. Embedded hubs need not be limited to being on the system board. However, the paper on reliability following limitations apply: Embedded hubs of add-in cards must be USB 3.0 hubs (this limitation is city essay, unique to the scenario of this requirement and not part of the paper xHCI specification). An add-in card may have at mla format letter most 1 integrated hub. If an add-in card has an integrated hub, it must have only 1 USB2 protocol port on the root hub. Paper On Reliability! This port is the port connected to phd thesis writing, the integrated hub. An add-in xHCI card that implements an research integrated hub must set the Integrated Hub Implemented (IHI) bit in cuny essay, the USB 2.0 xHCI Supported Protocol Capability structure to '1' for the root hub port connected to an integrated hub (refer to section 7.2.2.1.3.2 of the xHCI specification). All integrated or embedded hubs must be marked non-removable in their parent ports.

The implementation of integrated hubs determines the External Ports of the controller. Research! External Ports are a concept defined in section 4.24.2 of the comparison xHCI specification to order ports, so that they can be mapped to connectors. In all cases, let there be n USB2 protocol External Ports numbered 1 to n , and m USB3 protocol External Ports numbered n +1 to n + m . External Port numbers are assigned to research on reliability, meet the college essay following properties (not defined in the xHCI specification). Note that integrated hubs must be USB 2.0 hubs. If the research xHCI implements an integrated hub, then n , the number of USB2 protocol External Ports, equals the number of downstream facing ports on the integrated hub. Otherwise, n equals the number of downstream facing USB2 protocol ports on cover letter, the root hub.

m , the number of USB3 protocol External Ports, equals the number of downstream facing USB3 protocol ports on the root hub. Assign External Port numbers such that External Ports 1 through n are USB2 protocol ports and External Ports n +1 through n + m are USB3 protocol external ports, and the ordering ports within each protocol is preserved. If embedded hub(s) are not present: The USB2 protocol External Ports and USB3 protocol External Ports must be mapped to connectors using the research on reliability default mapping described in section 4.24.2.2 of the xHCI specification under the mla format cover heading When an research paper Embedded hub is mla format cover essay, not implemented. If embedded hub(s) are present: The embedded hubs must be USB 3.0 hubs. First, determine the connector mapping as it would be without any embedded hubs, using the default mapping from research section 4.24.2.2 of the xHCI specification. For each embedded hub, both upstream ports must be connected to the same connector. Comparison! The embedded hubs' downstream ports map to new connectors in the same way as the ports of a non-embedded USB 3.0 hub. Non-exposed connectors: Devices embedded in the host controller must be marked non-removable in their parent ports. If, according to the connector mapping above, a non-removable peripheral device's connector is shared with a second port, the second port must not be connected or connectable to any device. On the research other hand, any connector whose port(s) are all marked as removable is considered to be an exposed connector, i.e., it must be physically connectable. Note that if there is no ACPI information, a root hub cannot have both an embedded USB2 device and an integrated USB2 hub; instead, the embedded device must be attached to the integrated hub.

Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciAddInCardsReportInternalDevices. xHCI controller add-in cards must correctly report internally attached devices. Windows 10 for paper desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM.

Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) controllers must indicate internally attached devices by setting the device removable (DR) bit in research, the PORTSC register to 1 for every port that has an internally attached device. This applies to controllers that do not have ACPI information. For more information, see section 5.4.8 of the xHCI Specification. This requirement will prevent the revolution operating system from flagging non-removable devices as removable. Add-in cards are defined as host controllers that are not integrated onto the motherboard. Note: This requirement only paper applies to add-in cards because port mapping for integrated xHCI controllers should be performed via Advanced Configuration and college application essay Power Interface (ACPI). Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciSupportDebuggingOnAllExposedPorts. xHCI controllers must support USB debugging on all exposed ports. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64.

Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) host controllers are debug-capable on all ports.

Ports that have embedded non-removable devices attached do not need to report debug capability. USB debugging is paper on reliability, defined in section 7.6 of the xHCI specification. This requirement does not apply to add-in card host controllers. Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciSupportMsiMsixInterrupts. xHCI controllers must support MSI and/or MSI-X interrupts. Windows 10 for chennai desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86.

Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) controllers support Message Signaled Interrupts (MSI) and research on reliability MSI-X interrupts as defined in mla format letter essay, section 6.8 of the paper PCI Local Bus Specification, revision 3.0 and section 5.2.6 of the xHCI Specification. Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciSupportsMinimum31Streams. xHCI controllers must support at least 31 primary streams per endpoint. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86.

Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. Windows Server 2016 x64. Refer to the eXtensible Host Controller Interface specification, section 4.12.2. This requirement is for the MaxPSASize in the HCCPARAMS to be set to of research paper for high, 4 at the minimum to research paper, enable ultimate data transfer rate with UAS devices.

Storage devices based on the USB Attached SCSI Protocol (UASP) will utilize streams to on disadvantages of nuclear family, achieve faster data transfer rates. On Reliability! To enable the best experience with these devices, every xHCI controller will need to support at least 31 primary streams. Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciSupportsRuntimePowerManagement. USB xHCI host controllers must support runtime power management including, if implemented, runtime wake. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and mla format Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86. All USB xHCI host controllers must support runtime power management, as required by the eXtensible Host Controller Interface specification, version 1.0, Section 4.15. Runtime is on reliability, defined as the system working state (S0), including the phd thesis Connected Standby sub-state of S0 if the controller is tested on a system that supports Connected Standby. Power management of the host controller encompasses software-initiated idle power down (controller low power state such as D3), software-initiated power up, and, optionally, hardware-initiated wake signaling.

If the xHCI controller is reported to support runtime wake signaling, it must be able to wake itself successfully upon any of the following events: A) Any port detecting device wake signaling B) Any port detecting connect, disconnect, or overcurrent, when the paper corresponding PORTSC Wake on Xxx bit is set to '1'. For more details, see Section 4.15 of the scientific xHCI specification. To report whether the controller supports runtime wake signaling: For add-in controllers, the paper on reliability controller's PCI configuration space must accurately report whether the controller is capable of waking up via PME. Essay Of Nuclear! Note: reporting that the controller supports waking up via PME implies that the controller can both successfully perform PCI wake at on reliability runtime, and contract essay successfully wake the system from a system low power state, in accordance with the appropriate PCI specification. Research! For integrated controllers, the format paper ACPI _S0W object must report whether the controller is capable of runtime wake signaling.

Device.BusController.UsbController.XhciVersionCompliant. USB 3.0 controllers are XHCI version compliant. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x64. Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education) x86. Windows 10 Mobile ARM. Windows 10 Mobile x86.

Windows Server 2016 x64. USB 3.0 controllers must comply with the research paper Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) Specification version 1.0 and any USB-IF Errata that are released by the USB-IF. In 2019 Microsoft will transition to the text of this requirement being “USB 3.1 controllers must comply with the Extensible Host Controller Interface (xHCI) Specification version 1.1 and any USB-IF Errata that are released by the USB-IF. “. Microsoft strongly encourages transitioning to being compliant with the specification version 1.1 before the essay on disadvantages family 2019 date.

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When we exercise, the body burns fat, and this results in weight loss. A vigorous training routine is also necessary when trying to lose weight. The benefits of exercise are not just limited to weight loss. When we exercise, the body releases natural hormones called endorphins which help to paper promote a sense of euphoria. This reaction has a calming effect on mind , and encourages a healthy psyche and general well being.

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At this stage a strong emotional bond is built between the scientific revolution parents and research paper the infant. Parents have multiple concerns while the child is young. But as the child grows older the parent’s anxiety also increases. Young children are eager to on disadvantages of nuclear family know more about their immediate world. They learn much more from research paper their surroundings even when they are a few months old. At this stage the parent’s role is not just limited to mla format cover letter providing food, house and safety; they also have to research on reliability be a good mentor. Have our professional writers create your essay today and you'll get that A or higher guaranteed! All writing material is cover, created within 2 business days!Please enjoy this free example. Pay For Essay all rights reserved - This example is owned by Pay For Essay. Carrying Out Successful Meetings Example. Initially, when preparing to have a meeting, one must consider what the paper agenda will be.

It is crucial to note that unsuccessful meetings usually suffer from a deviation of the agenda, and result in little progress. An agenda consist of the points of plans and scientific summary which is on reliability, going to be considered by those attending the meeting. An agenda which is prepared well shall serve as the blueprint for the meeting. Contract Comparison Essay? Have our professional writers create your essay today and you'll get that A or higher guaranteed! All writing material is created within 2 business days! Below is an exmple of a resume. If you want more essay examples simply email us and we will send them to you! Pay For Essay all rights reserved - This example is owned by Pay For Essay. 56, Ellis Street. Los Angeles, CA, 01234. University of South California.

Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2007. Concentration: Communication Studies. Student Government Representative. International Leadership Award Recipient. Student Government Advertising Committee. Interned in a large Portuguese jewelry manufacturer. Researched information on paper Portuguese and American precious metal trade. Compiled status reports and press releases for the company. September 2005 -October 2006. University of South California, Los Angeles, CA.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by paper on reliability Legal Templates.

1. Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to phd thesis chennai download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference.

Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in research the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of phd thesis writing chennai a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is paper on reliability, essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the city application, history behind the company, mission statement and research on reliability, the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here.

Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and mla format essay, Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for paper on reliability, them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of phd thesis writing chennai growth and research paper, behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Phd Thesis Writing! Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Paper On Reliability! Chapter 6: Strategy and paper for high school, Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of research progress towards your goals.

Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. On Disadvantages Of Nuclear Family! Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of research paper on reliability your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an on disadvantages of nuclear existing company, you should also include the research paper on reliability, business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the family, second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Paper On Reliability! Each section gives an example of writing chennai what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to on reliability attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below.

Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. Cuny Application Essay! However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to research help found your company and phd thesis writing, ensure that your goals remain on track over research paper, time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an contract comparison essay existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and on reliability, expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to mla format investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary.

The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the paper on reliability, rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the cuny college essay, executive summary is on reliability, your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the scientific revolution, first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the paper on reliability, executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup.

A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the contract essay, attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the research paper on reliability, background of your management team, and city college, your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the research, executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional)

Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and paper for high school, experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services.

Describe the products and research, services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and revolution, Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into research, more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and cuny city college application, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here.

This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the research paper on reliability, logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of city college application equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on research paper on reliability in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the of nuclear, entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to paper on reliability identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.

How to Write the phd thesis chennai, Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the research, management team is critical for both start-ups and essay scientific revolution, established companies alike. Investors will use this information to research on reliability gauge the essay, future likelihood of research paper on reliability success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan.

Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an essay scientific unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to research paper on reliability set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for city college application essay, example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in research paper on reliability it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over cover, your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the research, relationship existing between two or more persons who join to phd thesis writing chennai carry on research paper a trade or business.

Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and comparison essay, expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to paper sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of essay scientific partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders.

A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to research paper shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the of nuclear, IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at research paper the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the essay, drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and research paper on reliability, not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at scientific revolution the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to research paper on reliability open, along with the registered name you plan to cover letter use. Explain your rationale – for research, example, if you are starting a company where you plan on format for high seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. On Reliability! With the chennai, lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of on reliability a venture.

The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. Contract! To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the paper, management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about of research paper for high members of the Management Team that are not relevant to research the reader. Scientific Revolution! Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. On Reliability! As a company grows from cuny city college application, start-up to established business, the management team must also change.

They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to research paper scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by essay of nuclear family the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of on reliability Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.

An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to phd thesis writing a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on paper how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and format of research paper for high, well-known individual as the research paper on reliability, first member of city college application your Advisory Board. Research Paper! This will help you to recruit other members of the on disadvantages family, Board. Paper! Choose individuals that have strengths and cuny city college essay, relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the research on reliability, members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount.

Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is essay, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of on reliability money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Of Research School! If your company is research paper on reliability, already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to format paper for high how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and research on reliability, why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by essay break-even and subsequent profitability.

The money you are seeking to research paper on reliability raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to scientific cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and research paper on reliability, why and essay of nuclear family, when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is on reliability, why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth?

The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. Paper For High School! At the research, end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). Comparison Essay! However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to research determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of mla format cover its assets. In other words, in this approach the paper, company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the of nuclear, asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. Research Paper On Reliability! This is a common approach in the real estate industry.

The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by on disadvantages using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the research, pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of on disadvantages money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of research on reliability how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and mla format cover essay, payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan.

For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to paper on reliability the next milestone event % of of research paper for high school equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the paper, loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the essay, investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000.

If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and paper, pay interest immediately on mla format essay the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to paper a credit card in phd thesis that you typically have a pre-set limit to research on reliability how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the phd thesis writing chennai, line of credit with assets, you may be able to research on reliability get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the essay on disadvantages, family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to research paper on reliability this section. Format Paper For High School! Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on paper their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to cuny college application sell the company or take it public.

Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to research paper on reliability demonstrate your business has the cuny city essay, potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in research on reliability hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and school, vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind.

Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Research Paper On Reliability! Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the college essay, company does (what it sells) as well as the research paper on reliability, culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:

A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the contract comparison, words “innovate” and research, “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is format for high, (1) cutting edge and research paper on reliability, (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the college essay, easiest pharmacy retailer for on reliability, customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on cuny city college essay making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY.

Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Paper On Reliability! Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to contract essay adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is research paper on reliability, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of phd thesis chennai having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in research paper mind that there is no set rule as to essay the level of research paper on reliability detail you want to include.

This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and of research paper for high, how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of on reliability milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. Phd Thesis! They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to research paper on reliability execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company.

Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the format paper, better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an research paper important section of contract comparison essay your plan. Information you may want to research include: Size (e.g.; in family sq. Paper! ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of scientific revolution retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the research on reliability, lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to chennai look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.

For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is research, pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an contract comparison important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and paper on reliability, fundraising perspective.

If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of mla format essay your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and on reliability, descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and of research school, butter of your business. Research Paper On Reliability! Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and phd thesis writing chennai, Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional)

Your products and research, services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and application, you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. On Reliability! features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Contract! Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the paper on reliability, functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and of nuclear, other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to on reliability sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream.

This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in on disadvantages of nuclear family the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for research paper, you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is format, advisable to start thinking about paper how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the essay, competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on research paper on reliability how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past.

Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about writing chennai current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is paper on reliability, competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for paper for high school, long. Sourcing is simply the process of research paper on reliability procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for contract, your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the research on reliability, more working capital you have on hand.

Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to comparison essay order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is on reliability, based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in format school quantity based on research expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to city college essay hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and research on reliability, you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory.

Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for cuny application, seasonality. On Reliability! Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Contract! Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of paper on reliability other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for mla format, you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of research on reliability competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.

Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to revolution ship to practically every corner of the paper, globe, seamlessly and phd thesis writing, with very low error rates. Think about research paper on reliability how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is contract, critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on paper your business, you may want to create back-up copies of phd thesis writing data and research, software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?

Think about cuny city application essay alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of on reliability intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of mla format a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress).

If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is research paper, recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. Essay! You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded.

IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an research on reliability invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the paper, company owns all works produced while contracted by research on reliability the company. Cover Letter! In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is on reliability, a physical record. If you have future products and on disadvantages of nuclear, services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the research, stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in cuny city college application the marketplace, and on reliability, expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).

During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to mla format letter essay further differentiate your product from paper, competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the mla format cover, products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for on reliability, them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and essay on disadvantages family, Market Analysis Sections.

Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the research paper, segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of scientific revolution looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in paper the downtown area and research the comparison, average annual sales for research, each restaurant.

Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the letter essay, example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the on reliability, market you can realistically capture. On Disadvantages Family! You might assume that you will take an equal share of the research paper on reliability, market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for contract essay, the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to on reliability switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving.

If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Essay! Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from research, a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to on disadvantages of nuclear family overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for paper, various aspects of city college essay your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the research paper on reliability, other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses.

For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on city essay non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in research paper turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to on disadvantages connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on paper your business.

If you build your business on top of contract comparison a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is research paper on reliability, simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to phd thesis writing the next (usually in years). Research! So if the cuny college application essay, market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Research On Reliability! Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to cover letter essay demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the research paper, market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers.

On the other hand, the market for Apple and essay on disadvantages family, Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the research, group of essay companies that are related to research paper on reliability you in essay of nuclear terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and research, Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to contract essay describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an research on reliability industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape.

If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in contract comparison essay the way for new entrants to enter the market and research on reliability, compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on phd thesis writing your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is research paper on reliability, very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is essay revolution, mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of research on reliability customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of city college your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of research paper your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers.

For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to of research for high school name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Research Paper! Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Scientific Revolution! Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter.

The marketing and sales chapter gives you an paper on reliability opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the letter, other section.

Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into paper, further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the cuny city application, competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at research on reliability the cheapest price point in the marketplace.

There are three primary ways to city application achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to research paper on reliability turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in essay a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the on reliability, business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and essay, RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and paper, negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is cuny college application essay, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of research paper their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors:

If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Paper! Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to paper on reliability be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge.

For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of contract essay what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to on reliability pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from cuny city college, describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to paper have a strong online presence. Mla Format Cover Letter! There are a myriad of paper on reliability options available. Format Paper For High! Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.

A website is a key component of research paper your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in cover which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of research on reliability mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to scientific continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Research! Integrating social media into on disadvantages, your word of paper on reliability mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business.

Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Essay! You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the research on reliability, adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is city application, direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is paper, stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels.

Examples include nautical computers and on disadvantages family, tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an research paper unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and paper, Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors.

Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is research paper on reliability, being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the of nuclear, success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to research paper on reliability measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the mla format cover letter, venture will succeed.

Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to research on reliability create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and on disadvantages, Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is paper on reliability, very difficult to deliver. Revolution! Providing the research on reliability, lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is writing chennai, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is paper, a powerful business strategy.

Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of scientific a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an on reliability opportunity for writing, a partnership in research on reliability the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and city, power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. On Reliability! Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for mla format cover, instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to research paper on reliability partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to of research paper school set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of research a technology.

For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. Essay On Disadvantages Of Nuclear! For example, Samsung is the paper on reliability, official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to scientific all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan.

It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the on reliability, size of the market you can realistically target, and writing, the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on research on reliability the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the cover letter essay, sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to research on reliability define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an writing chennai increase in sales thereafter.

This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the paper, unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the for high school, cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of research on reliability scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of of research paper raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of research paper on reliability units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time.

Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of essay your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at research paper the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of on disadvantages family taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to paper on reliability the state each year.

If the individual assumptions used for format for high, each component of the on reliability, sales forecast is accurate, so will the cuny city college application essay, overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the research on reliability, largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of mla format letter essay personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and on reliability, you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the paper for high school, milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.

You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. Research Paper! For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. On Disadvantages Of Nuclear Family! Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to paper on reliability define a compensation plan for city college essay, sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly.

In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and on reliability, health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and contract comparison essay, sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Research! Burden rate only affects employees and chennai, not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications.

Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. Research Paper! You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and scientific, Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to paper allocate the costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value.

Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for cuny college application, less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year.

A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. Paper! This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over family, a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the research paper, PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at cuny $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. On Reliability! Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the city application essay, amount of research Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is scientific, covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). Research Paper On Reliability! As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%).

Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the contract, owners. You may want to research set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and essay revolution, determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for research paper on reliability, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of scientific revolution any of these expenses and paper, include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the contract comparison essay, money from the purchaser. Paper On Reliability! Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on format of research paper credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of research on reliability physically making payments as each transaction occurs.

You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in chennai mind that for some businesses it is preferential to research paper provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to essay scientific pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is paper, 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to on disadvantages negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow.

When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is on reliability, that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and paper school, you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to research be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on city college essay credit. Defining how long it will take to research collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments?

Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in scientific mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of research paper on reliability inventory you hold on hand, the revolution, more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry?

The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to paper start by collecting good records on essay your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an paper indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for college application essay, credit sales and payments may depend on paper your suppliers or your industry. Contract Comparison Essay! Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments.

How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to paper pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the essay revolution, loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to research paper finance growth is commonplace.

These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in application essay the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the research on reliability, line of cover letter essay credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of on reliability credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of city college essay credit then enter the research, amount, as you want to city essay forecast the paper, financials assuming you have secured the on disadvantages of nuclear family, line of credit.

The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of research paper cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to cover letter essay the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the on reliability, money you make from of research paper for high, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out on reliability, a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history.

Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales:

One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is comparison essay, healthy.

For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and research paper, the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to chennai ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and research paper, Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. Phd Thesis Chennai! It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into research on reliability, the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by chennai going back to paper on reliability those sections.

The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. Contract Comparison Essay! It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is paper, a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.

If you are an contract comparison essay existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and research, outflows from your operating, investing and format of research, financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the research paper, balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and cuny city, end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Research Paper On Reliability! You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the mla format cover letter, health of research on reliability your business. The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in phd thesis writing chennai case.

This is research, important in determining the ability of the business to essay scientific meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in paper its ability to comparison essay make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is research on reliability, actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. Phd Thesis Chennai! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by research on reliability total assets.

Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to contract comparison essay help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of research terms. Application! Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and research paper on reliability, your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of format of research school your business that an investor may not understand.

Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to research attract equity investments and format for high, loans. Although our examples are specific to research on reliability each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for contract, you and your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples.

4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to paper on reliability order your chapters, or the worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to you to flesh out the essay revolution, details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free.

You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the research paper, guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at scientific all to research paper purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and essay scientific, re-create on research paper on reliability your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only mla format about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to have to do the financial calculations, plans, and research on reliability, forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. On Disadvantages Of Nuclear Family! Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy.

This requirement is beyond the scope of research on reliability most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to contract essay meticulous research, and on reliability, calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to phd thesis a seasoned investor. 2. You’ll need to research on reliability manually create visual graphs and charts to make the chennai, calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and research paper, create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and letter, easy to comprehend is on reliability, no easy task. Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into phd thesis writing chennai, relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and research paper on reliability, bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to keep your company’s information up to date easily. One of the scientific, major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of research paper on reliability your business easily and phd thesis, without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out paper, your product/service concepts and phd thesis chennai, marketing plan.

If or when you encounter the financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of research on reliability writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in phd thesis writing chennai only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is research paper, not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of comparison law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for research on reliability, informational purposes and phd thesis writing chennai, self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is research on reliability, subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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Essay on the Balban’s Theory of Kingship. Balban was a despotic ruler and on reliability, the reestablishment of the prestige of the crown was the immediate need before him. He streng­thened absolute monarchy by suppressing all opposition. He tried to create a halo of superiority around him and declared himself a descendant of Afrasiyab dynasty. He exploited the religious feelings of the people in order to strengthen his position. Professor K. A. Nizami is not of the opinion that as Balban was a freeman nor connected with royal-family, did he suffer from contract essay inferiority complex due to his guilty conscience. In the words of research on reliability, Nizami, “The absence of format, any reference to his manumission in the pages of Minhaj-us-Siraj and Barani is significant and perhaps, he was not manumitted and this basic legal disqualification to rule over the people, he tried to paper cover under a shrewdly designed mask of divine commitment of regal authority.” Balban through his theory of kingship endeavored to prove that he had not taken the throne by cover the poisoned cup or by the dagger of the murderer.

K. Research Paper On Reliability! A. Nizami writes, “By dinning into the ears of his maliks and amirs most of whom were the quondam collea­gues, again and again that kingship was something divinely ordained, he wanted to wash off the stigma of being a regicide and impress upon their minds that it was Divine will that had brought him to revolution the throne and not the poisoned cup and research paper, the assassin’s dagger.” Image Source: cdn.historydiscussion.net. Balban laid stress on paper two main points in research on reliability his theory of cuny city college essay, kingship. First, monarchy is bestowed upon a person by the grace of God; hence it is research paper on reliability, divine, and secondly, a Sultan must be a despot. He used to say, “King is the representative of for high, God on earth (Niyabat-i-Khudai) and in his dignity he is next only to prophethood and, therefore, his action cannot be judged by research paper on reliability nobles or the people.” Once he told his son Bughra Khan, “Kingship is the embodiment of despotism,” and therefore, he was not answerable to city anybody for the discharge of his functions as Sultan. Thus he tried to enhance the power and prestige of the crown. Balban, in order to paper prove his claim to divine origin of the sovereign, made a complete change in his dress, behaviour and manner. Declaring himself a descendant of Afrasiyab dynasty, he gave up drinking, cut off from the jovial company of his courtiers, maintained aloofness and college, stopped meeting the common people. Balban did not agree to meet a rich merchant of Delhi who was prepared to research hand over all of his property in return of an interview with the format of research paper Sultan.

He had feeling of hatred for the low-born people. Once he said, “My veins begin to agitate when I behold a low-born person.” Balban always maintained an external dignity. He never ex­pressed unusual joy or sorrow. His frowning look9 displayed an awe- inspiring personality. He was sitting in research paper on reliability the court when the news of the death of his beloved eldest son Muhammad was delivered to him, but he continued his administrative work without showing even a little sign of sorrow on his forehead. After finishing his duties when he returned to his bedroom, he wept bitterly for the death of his beloved son. He always wore complete dress, none of his personal attendants had ever seen court nor did he permit anybody to do so.

Balban displayed his autocratic power and grandeur by framing certain rules for the court behaviour and forced the chennai courtiers to act accordingly. He himself strictly followed these rules in his own life. His darbar was famous for paper on reliability, its pomp and show. It was based on Persian model and many ceremonies and festivals of Persian style were celebrated in phd thesis chennai it. The festival of Nauroz was one of the research on reliability most renowned among them. The people of foreign countries who visited the court of Balban were stunned to format of research paper see the royal splendour and the glamour of the court. He introduced the practice of Sizda or pros­tration and Paibos or kissing of the feet of the Sultan and thus tried to impose his superiority over his subjects. He assumed the title of Zille Illahi. He did not permit his courtiers to take their seats so long as he remained in the court. He appointed black, tall and research on reliability, fearsome guards around him.

They used to have naked swords in their hands. When­ever the letter essay Sultan went outside the palace, they marched with him shouting Bismillah. Bismillah. This show of paper on reliability, power, pomp and splendor, no doubt, added to the prestige of the Sultan and enhanced the glamour of the court. After his accession to revolution the throne of Delhi Balban realized that the Turkish nobles who were led by the gang of the Forty were the paper grea­test stumbling block in the way of mla format cover essay, his autocracy. They had made the Sultan a puppet in their hands and distributed most of the research on reliability significant fiefs and offices among themselves. This gang was formed during the reign of Iltutmish. In the beginning all the members of the contract comparison gang were the slaves of the then Sultan.

He could establish his control over this gang and maintained the prestige of the empire. But after his death a tug of war began between the members of this gang and the successors of the Sultan in which, ultimately, the gang of the Forty Slood victorious. Balban had been a member of this gang and knew their ambitions, resources and cunningness. He, therefore, decided to break the back of their power. He adopted a slow but steady policy to undermine their political status and on reliability, reduced the military power of these nobles. First of all, he promoted the Turks of lower order and cuny city application essay, thus made them equal to members of the group of the Forty. He sent some of the members of the Forty on risky expeditions so that they might be absorbed in the affairs of the research paper on reliability state. Later on, in order to punish them and lessen their significance in the eyes of the revolution public, he awarded them severe punishments for small crimes. Balban adopted a stern view towards the members of the Forty. When he received the complaint that Malik Baqbaq, the Governor of Badaun had beaten a servant to death, the Sultan had him flogged publicly and disgraced him. Haibat Khan, the Governor of Avadh, assassinated a man under the influence of liquor.

The Sultan ordered that five hundred stripes be given on his bare body and his wound body was handed over to the widow of the research paper deceased servant to avenge the death of her husband. Although Haibat Khan saved his life by paying 20,000 Tankas to the widow, he was so much ashamed that after this incident he did not come out from his palace till death Amin Khan, the Governor of Ayodhya, was defeated by Tughril Khan and reached the capital after facing many difficulties but Balban did not behave kindly with him. He awarded him death punishment and thus killed one of the influential members of the Forty to the grief of the gang and to the relief to himself. Contract Essay! It is on reliability, said that he did not spare even his cousin Sher Khan who was a very trusted commander and brave officer. He achieved tremendous success against the Mongols and terrorized them very much.

Balban grew jealous of his success and began to distrust him. Later on, he got him poisoned to death. After the death of these four powerful and ambitious members of the group of forty, there remained no strong opponent of Balban who could be a stumbling block in the way of his despotism. Contract! Thus Balban crushed the gang of forty through intrigues and barbarous means and those who survived were later on research paper on reliability suppressed and dismissed from service. Balban succeeded in executing his despotic policy only because he could get the prior information of the incidents which happened in different parts of the kingdom. Paper For High School! He also knew of the ambitious schemes of the governors and administrative officers through hi” well-organized spy system.

The credit of smooth running of the government, therefore, goes to research paper the spies who always discharged their duty honestly. Dr. Ishwari Prasad has also remarked, “A well established system of espionage is an inevitable corollary of despotism and Balban with a view to making the administration of justice very efficient appointed spies in his fiefs, whose duty was to report all acts of injustice. To make these reports accurate and honest, he greatly restricted the field of individual observation and when the report was made, he showed no indulgence on the score of the rank or birth. Balban kept a very close watch on the activities of the college spies. They were required to report the news of day-to-day events to their master. If any of them failed to discharge his duties he was punished for disloyalty. Garret has aptly remarked, “He set on foot an army of spies by whose means he obtained the universal knowledge of events.” The spies of Balban were responsible only to paper on reliability Balban and they met him directly. They were paid handsome salaries but were required to cuny city application work efficiently failing which they were reprimanded. Dr.

Ishwari Prasad remarks about the efficiency of the espionage system, “The spies, no doubt, checked crime and protected innocent persons against the high-handedness of those in power ; their presence must have led to demoralization of the research on reliability committee to paper for high school a large extent and paper, the suppression of even the most legitimate and harmless amenities of cuny city college essay, social life.” The problem of Bengal harassed Balban very much like the early Sultans of Delhi. The year 1279 A.D. Research! proved very critical for Balban. He fell ill and hope of his survival diminished. Contract Comparison! At the same time the Mongols attacked the north-west frontier. Tughril Khan the Governor of Bengal taking advantage of paper, this critical situation, revolted against Delhi Sultanate. The distance between Delhi and Bengal, the incessant invasion of the Mongols on the capital and the old age of Balban inflamed his ambitions. He assumed the title of Sultan, struck coins in essay revolution his name and got the research Khutba read. Balban at college essay once sent Amin Khan, the Governor of Avadh, to bring Tughril Khan to paper on reliability his knees, but Amin Khan failed to attain success against the rebel Governor and returned.

Balban could not tolerate the defeat of his Governor; he hanged him at the gate of Ayodhya. In fact this punishment was not awarded to him as a result of his defeat but he was the cuny city essay member of the group of Forty and Balban wanted to get rid of him. Another expedition against Tughril was sent under the leader­ship of Trimiti. He was also defeated. A third army was also re­pulsed by Tughril Khan. These successive defeats compelled Balban to research paper on reliability go to Bengal in person so that the increasing power of Tughril Khan could be checked once for all. He marched against Bengal with about two lakh soldiers and essay revolution, his son Bughra Khan, and reached near Lakhnauti. Tughril Khan was very much terrified with the news of the paper arrival of phd thesis chennai, Sultan Balban near Lakhnauti. In spile of fighting against the Sultan, Tughril Khan fled Lakhnauti to east Bengal. Tughril Khan thought that the Sultan was an old man and his capital was unsafe, so he would not stay in Bengal for research paper on reliability, a long time but Balban chased the fugitive rebel and reached Sunargaon near Dhaka. Tughril Khan disappeared in the forest but he was discovered by Malik Muhammad Sherandaz.

He made a surprise expedition over the rebel while he was taking rest along with his soldiers. Tughril Khan tried to escape from the scene on an unsaddled horse but he was knocked down from his horse and killed by Malik Muqaddar. Scientific! Several followers of Tughril were killed and many of them were arrested. Paper On Reliability! The Sultan brought them all to Lakhnauti and inflicted terrible punishments on them. Barani writes about it, “On either side of the principal market in a street more than two miles in length, a row of stakes was set up and the adherents of phd thesis chennai, Tughril were impaled upon them.

None of the beholders had ever seen a spectacle so terrible and many swooned with terror and disgust.” Thus satisfying his thirst of anger and revenge, Balban appointed his son Bughra Khan the Governor of Bengal and directed him to be always faithful to the Delhi Sultanate failing which he would also be punished like Tughril Khar, and his followers. In his own words, “Understand me and don’t forget that if the Governors of Hind or Sind or Malwa or Gujarat, Lakhnauti or Sunargaon shall draw sword and become rebels to the throne of Delhi, then such punishments as have fallen on Tughril and his dependents will fall upon them, their wives and children and all their adherents.” Lane-poole has also written about this direction of Balban to his son, “If ever designing any evil minded men should insist you to waiver in your allegiance to Delhi and to throw off its authority then remember the vengeance you have seen wrought in the bazaar”. When Balban, at last, became confident that there would be no revolt in Bengal, he returned to paper Delhi. He brought several followers of Tughril as captives. Cover Letter Essay! He wanted to punish them in Delhi like Lakhnauti so that the people of Delhi may also be terrified but owing to research paper on reliability the intervention of the Qazi, he changed the scheme of punishment and inflicted some light punishments on the supporters of Tughril Khan. Balban returned to Delhi after three years and his son Bughra Khan continued to rule over Bengal upto 1339 A.D. with full loyalty to the Delhi Sultanate.

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