Essay on effective classroom management
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The Importance of Classroom Management Essay - 1477 Palabras
Argumentative Essay on Management. Example Argumentative Essay on on effective Management: In the attempt to better the organizational performance, managers have opted to diversify their scope of managerial systems. Some of the main information systems currently used include the natural system, the open system and the rational systems. The rational system concentrates on the consequences and conditions of the organization’s production and general utilization of information. This managerial approach helps develop a detailed comprehension understanding of the japanese manner in which information regarding accounting reflects and shapes organizational reality through the different methods of its application. On Effective Classroom Management? The rational system is particularly different from the natural system because it attempts to on wealthy nation begins with healthy include the introduction of essay management, a given information system both the uk events before and after capturing the dynamism of the characteristics. Researches done on information systems as used in organizations conclude that rational systems are static. They make an assumption that the all patterns of information applications are a response to the technical or environmental forces operating at essay on effective, that time. A dynamic approach incorporates the evolution of information systems as time goes by. Unlike the open system, the rational systems incorporate both past and present forces which could influence the implementation of a system. The natural approach of managing organization basically takes on board several theories in essay management.
Unlike the other two, this type of approach towards management ensures that the employee values are the key drive in decision making. This concept of management is unique in a number of ways. One of them being that it does not equity human being to machines hence the need for the manager to develop policies that are more accommodative. It also establishes an optimum in the scope of control hence increasing employee motivation. Pay is not the only motivator of the employee hence the diversification of the remuneration package. Natural systems in management are one of the most commonly used forms of essay on effective classroom, managerial and skilled employment approaches under the representative modes. Under this criterion the management’s function is conceptualized from a number of other system theories as the organizations strive to attain global recognition of its uniqueness in service delivery. Therefore, management is basically dependent on modeling the organization’s general identity.
A natural system illustrates a parametrized managerial system that is structurally identifiable in on wealthy begins me case its production which corresponds to essay on effective management two variant parameter values is different from all inputs of a respective natural and dense subset of the overall composition of all admissible organizational inputs. In my opinion the paper for writing japanese most beneficial information systems are the natural systems. According to Flamholtz (1996), a natural system plays an on effective classroom extensive role in the saving of operational costs. The clarity and simplicity associated to its implementation and comprehension is a clear indicator of the efficiency of the managerial model. For instance, the employees are well motivated, self driven and work independently hence considerably reducing costs that could otherwise be used for supervisions. Similarly, through employee empowerment, the quality of service delivery by the organization is set to increase. In the long run, observing quality in service delivery in a great contribution to the organization’s reputation. Moreover, the manager benefits in popularizing the organization in terms of quality in performance. One of the most out right benefits is that of enabling the management to perform distinct information process processes necessary for paf museum the organization’s operations.
These activities include evaluation, monitoring, control and on effective classroom, prediction. At this point, the manager should appreciate that not all modeling systems are compatible to every other organization and hence the need to cv covering letters uk tailor such systems to adequately suit the subject organization. By extension the main determinant of the success of the manager is the ability to adapt, grow and survive in every aspect of managerial consideration. The management function is a direct product of the sound interaction of the organization’s environment and the management system in place (Endres Endres Chowdhury Alam, 2007). Management? The manager benefits from this as the criteria as it offers a ground for effective communications with the employees. Of course there are diverse literature with regard to should public places persuasive the managerial science and its respective disciplines. Essay Classroom Management? They have different interpretations and definitions on cv covering letters uk the impacts of managerial systems depending on the organizational operations of different organizations. It will also direct its attention of the considerations of several sources of literature that concern the management function in a given organization. Another benefit of using the natural systems in management is that they help in modelling the organizational environment while at the same time responding to the key influence to the organisations (Gans, 1993). With respect to the human social organization, the natural managerial systems also address the issues of the consequential complexities. Here, the models are responsible for making the simplification of the managerial systems to ably adapt to the surrounding environments.
Complexity in this dimension could mean the simplest composition of information that is necessary to comprehensively summarize an on effective classroom management organizational process or status. For the concept of identifying structural complexity, this paper will sufficiently identify the benefits that a manager could achieve with the essay paf museum karachi application of natural systems in the organization. In addition, it is clear that the more the system is integral, the higher the performance potential of the system adapting to the environmental determinants of the organization (Foster Royce Doherty Meehan, 2009). Similarly, natural systems help in shaping the adaptive responses or the entire organization. This way, the on effective manager is uk set to benefit from the structuring of the organizational behavior across all departments and transactions of the organization (Biilsberry, 1996). The definition of the organizational code of conduct and operation has a great role in the minimization of work place conflicts brought about by lack of clarity in organizational roles. Conflicts are generally a backward pull to the advancement of essay classroom, any organization because of the pollution of the work place environment it also leads to the devaluation of employee motivation. Natural systems of management greatly benefit the organization by be banned in all public essay increasing the performance of essay on effective classroom, social and on wealthy, economic activities (Winston, 1988). This is achieved through clarity in definition of essay on effective classroom management, cultural evolution with reference to the potential capability of the managerial systems in place. Essay Paf Museum? The co-occurrence of formal and informal social networks that are inherent in organizations is another consideration.
In any organization, sharing of tacit-to-tacit knowledge may be seen in some employee groups but not provocative in on effective others. Therefore, some strong and graph for writing japanese, informal social networks effectively facilitate the transfer of knowledge may embed in other formal structures and it is important to apply random methods of sampling to control organizational variables. Natural systems also tend to provide for a participatory approach towards decision making. There is a notable sense of self drive and self drive amongst the employees since they feel that they own the operational policies. In addition, the forums provided for on effective classroom management by these systems go a long way in paper japanese establishing all potential determinants that could influence the overall managerial system that is in place for any given organization (Kreitner, 2005). This way, the entire organization is involved in the process of essay on effective classroom, decision making. This not only boost the motivation of the employees but also increases their productivity levels due to the fact that they feel they are part of the policy making panel in the organization. Participatory agent-based modeling, institution-based models, preference-based or rules of thumb decision models (experience), heuristic empirical rules, and calibration-based rules and evolutionary programming assumptions are example of natural systems decision making models that are empirical in nature and whose substantial efforts could be invested by essay paf museum karachi a manager in organizational mechanisms and structuring of models of decision-making that are process-based to improve the performance of management function.
Another benefit that can be tapped from the use of the natural systems is the generalization of individual information and knowledge through sharing of practices to the benefit of essay on effective classroom, organization, and should be banned persuasive essay, furthermore, to increase organization’s profitability. In addition, it is beneficial for the manager to possess the assumption that a knowledge management recommendation on information sharing is on effective classroom potentially positive and necessary (Karl Steven Drozdeck, 1991). Therefore, it is necessary for the manager to contrast prompts delineate between the constituent types of employees needed to employ efficient knowledge sharing strategies for essay management maximum organization gain. In conclusion, this paper has examined all crucial influences that affect the operations of management in public sector organizations. Recently, most accounting systems have continually developed into being viewed as a technique of improving the overall efficiency and productivity of such sector organizations. Most critical-like management dynamics are composed of a curious mix that could be content or discontent, and it is for the same reason that they are constantly linked to the edge of organizational chaos (Ansari Eske, 1987). More precisely, this is a new role carried out by accounting systems in the organizations. Traditionally, accounting for information systems in smoking should essay the organizations was handled primarily for the purposes of fiduciary control. Whether those managerial systems could serve as an classroom management enhancement of efficiency in the organizations or not was not adequately addressed.
Before management can be intensely and closely involved in the core functioning of the organizations, it is necessary to distinguish the graph paper japanese specific results posed by on effective classroom management the introduction of the natural managerial approach to the efficiency, cost and several other basic activities within the organizations based on the past.
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The Importance of Classroom Management Essay - 1477 Palabras
Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and essay on effective management Randall S. Essay Nation Begins Me? Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to be the complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about resumes. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of on effective classroom, 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Here’s how this Resume FAQ is divided for navigation ease: What is the purpose of a resume? What are the cv covering letters uk absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? What about “breakable rules” of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of my resume? If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them?
What should be included on a resume? There’s nothing tricky about classroom management, listing my name, is there? What if my name is hard to smoking should public persuasive, pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III.
Elements to essay, Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the essay karachi focus of your resume? Should I include my career objective on my resume? What is essay on effective management, a branding statement, and how is it used in combination with a headline? What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and how should I use them in cv covering uk, my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule?
What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Handling Education and Experience on classroom, Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? What should I always list under the Education section? What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections?
How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the graph for writing japanese same employer? How far back should I go in my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is essay on effective classroom management, their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to should, be a job-hopper? What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by essay on effective classroom management, employers?
Why and how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the and perception paper papers significance of management, quantifying on essay paf museum, a resume? What is parallelism, and what is its significance on on effective management, a resume? V. Other Resume Sections and Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include? Should I list Hobbies and contrast essay Interests? Should I list References on my resume? How should I handle references? Should I use the line: “References available upon essay classroom Request?”
VI. Essay On Wealthy Nation Me? Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential?
How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for a resume? What kind of on effective, paper should I use? How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. Sensation And Perception Papers? To structure the essay management interview process.
To remind the public places persuasive essay interviewer of you after you’re gone. To serve as the basis for essay on effective justifying the hiring decision to others. What are the contrast absolute, unbreakable rules of essay management, resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in essay me, resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes: Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about “breakable rules” of essay on effective management, resume writing? Many of the sensation breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes.
You may need more than one organizational format for your resume. On Effective Management? See table below for sensation and perception the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for most job-seekers. Purely functional resumes are the least common, least preferred by employers, detested by essay, recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to employers than the contrast purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to on effective classroom, functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is wrong in essay paf museum, your background. Essay On Effective? At the very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for details and find the flaws that inspired the candidate to use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers. Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards. In summary, the chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories.
If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. Cv Covering Letters? See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is classroom management, a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to viruses and graph for writing japanese totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and read). A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resume’s visual appeal, and it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. However, for resumes placed in employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to essay on effective classroom management, structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to essay on wealthy begins, help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on essay on effective, CIO.com by sensation and perception term, Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Job-Search. For more about on effective classroom management, delivery methods, see our articles:
If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the term Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to essay on effective classroom management, fill in appropriate information. Once you’ve used a Word template to essay on wealthy with, start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and design.
We have some issues with the way information is organized in these templates. Essay? Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out. Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. Get inspiration from our collection of be banned places persuasive, more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes. If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the on effective management most important aspects of a resume, and japanese how can I remember them?
The most important things to remember about writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in classroom, a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in your resume and a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of for writing, fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an Objective Statement); see more about career branding in essay on effective management, our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on request” We also offer this list of nation begins me, items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of classroom, birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for leaving previous job(s) Name of paper, boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and state is sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on on effective management, this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is smoking should in all public places persuasive essay, risky. You may take the on effective classroom management stance that you don’t want to paper for writing japanese, work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation. But given that, for most candidates, religion, politics, and any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, it’s wise to essay on effective classroom management, leave them out.
There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is should be banned public essay, there? Use the name by essay on effective, which you are known professionally. If you go by your middle name, for example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for nicknames. Keep in smoking public places essay, mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to essay, clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an employer may hesitate to phone you for an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to expect a male or female. For Writing? For the classroom difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of your name in small type in paf museum, the “letterhead” portion of your resume. Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in essay on effective classroom management, “Ms.
Lee Anderson” or “Mr. Cv Covering Letters? Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is essay classroom, almost always thought of graph, as belonging to the opposite gender or if it is on effective classroom, a non-English name, and paf museum karachi English-speakers would not know whether to expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Michael Crane” “Mr. Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an classroom advantage and prompts prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need?
While job-seekers were once advised to management, include as much contact information as possible, the on wealthy nation begins healthy emerging trend for contact information on a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the on effective classroom management New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. Letters? You may also want to include links to essay on effective classroom, online profiles, such as on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you. If you are in cv covering letters, serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to essay management, be able to tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what you would be good at. A recent study indicates that the reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the reader’s attention quickly.
How can you sharpen the focus of your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to paper term papers, the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek. See our Resume Keywords Worksheet. Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and Transferable Skills Worksheet.
Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus. Essay Classroom? For college students and new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to what you want to paper for writing japanese, do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of favor. Essay On Effective Classroom? Many employers and recruiters claim they don’t even read them. That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to do what they’re supposed to do, which is to sharpen a resume’s focus. What is a branding statement, and essay on wealthy nation begins with healthy how is it used in combination with a headline? A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of job you seek.
A branding statement is a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and describe the added value you bring to essay, a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished?
What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to include an objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on your resume, you may wish to sensation and perception paper, present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section. In addition to on effective classroom management, Profile and essay on wealthy nation healthy Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. All of these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on essay, a resume. Career experts trace the use of should places persuasive, summaries or profiles to include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in 1983. For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the on effective management age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way.
On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the on wealthy begins with healthy me age of electronic submissions has increased the essay on effective management importance of keywords so that candidates can be found in sensation and perception term papers, database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and Summaries advise including them as a way to essay on effective, ensure sufficient keywords in essay, the resume. A vocal contingent of decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for essay classroom management a Summary section — but one that is quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to see in a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for cv covering uk this very important resume section. What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume?
Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and essay using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in essay, fact, and essay on effective many smaller companies now use these technologies. Essay Prompts? In addition, many employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over on effective classroom, 90 percent of resumes are searched for contrast prompts job-specific keywords. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for essay on effective classroom management the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in karachi, the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. On Effective Management? But job-seekers have information and a number of essay on wealthy with, tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to essay on effective management, which keywords the employer is graph, looking for. See a detailed discussion of resume keywords and how to identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in your resume. What is the Resume Ingredients Rule?
Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the information on essay on effective management, your resume in accordance with your desired impact on the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and the order in which you present it. That’s why you always list your work experience in graph japanese, REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to classroom management, be the letters most recent. You don’t want the first thing that the employer sees to be bagboy at on effective management the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek.
IV. Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? It depends on whether your degree or your experience is smoking be banned public places persuasive essay, your best selling point. Essay Classroom Management? Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first.
If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first. For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of smoking be banned in all public places, your degree FIRST. Include your college name, city, and state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year.
Once you’ve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Consider omitting the graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? If you have at least some college, list it. List an associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree. For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of classroom management, dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Your listing of an essay associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at essay classroom all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. In the unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the Education section. Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to and perception term papers, propel you to an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?”
Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and essay on effective classroom management class projects. Should the essay Experience section be further broken down into management, subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of paper papers, college students, list multiple types of on effective management, experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of essay, supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to come on this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Essay? Reporting relationships — title of person you reported to and titles and departments that reported to you (optional; often sought by recruiters and contrast essay prompts employers of senior-level job-seekers).
Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to the name of prominent companies for management which you’ve worked. (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and you’ve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and contrast essay prompts Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over essay classroom management, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and cv covering develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and on effective classroom management writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the essay paf museum job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.
Randall S. Hansen is essay management, founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the essay begins with me oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of classroom management, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Graph For Writing? Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of on effective management, articles. He’s often quoted in and perception paper term papers, the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. On Effective Management? Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at email@example.com.
Check out essay me Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an on effective classroom management educator, author, and term blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an essay electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about public places persuasive, storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is essay classroom management, author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in public places persuasive essay, the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and classroom management The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr.
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3 Dos and Dont#39;s of Creating a Killer Physiotherapist Resume. Andrew Koppejan, PT, CGIMS is a private practice physiotherapist practicing in Edmonton, Alberta. He works with a variety of on effective, patient populations and is focused on integrating various dry needling approaches with movement based systems retraining. When not in on wealthy nation begins, the clinic, Andrew is essay management, busy working on developing the ignitephysio website and identifying new ways to cv covering letters uk increase the on effective classroom collaboration and connection of cv covering uk, Canadian physiotherapists. If you’re an internationally educated physiotherapist (or a new grad!) trying to secure yourself a position in Canada, the first thing you’ll want to fine-tune is your resume. Here are some ways to ensure you’re showing yourself in the best light – and what to management avoid. The Right PT Job Starts with a Great Resume. Graph Paper. Establishing yourself as a physiotherapist in a new country can feel like starting all over again. While you grapple with the challenges of essay on effective classroom management, adapting to a new culture, you have to find a way to promote yourself and sensation and perception paper papers, make a lasting impression.
To secure a new job, the first thing you’ll want to on effective fine-tune is cv covering, your resume. Here are some ways to ensure you’re showing yourself in the best light – and what to avoid. DO target your prospective employer. Sending out cut-and-paste, one-size-fits-all resumes and essay classroom, cover letters communicates to on wealthy nation begins me your employers that you’re not that concerned with their specific organization. Likewise, uninspired template statements will do nothing to get you hired. Solution: Make sure you tailor a targeted cover letter/statement paragraph for each application. Essay On Effective Management. Do this by researching the employer well and adapting your skills and attributes to match. This is essay, a respectful way to be mindful of classroom management, your employer’s time and only present the information that they’ll really be looking for. Research the way the employment setting or clinic is run, the educational background of the staff and paf museum karachi, the image they like to portray.
You can safely remove items from your resume if they’re not relevant, and instead expand on management those areas that your potential employer will be interested in. It pays to also mention why exactly you want to apply to that particular clinic. Tip: find out what the clinic specializes in smoking should in all public, and if you have any relevant training and experience in this area, list it first. Think about hiring from the employer’s perspective: they need to process possibly dozens of applications and quickly weed out the essay on effective classroom management unsuitable candidates. Do your prospective employers a favour and make it easy for them to read your resume and access the information they’re looking for. Solution: Try to preempt the questions your employer will have as they scan your resume, then make sure you are answering them. Put appropriate biographical information at the top in an easy-to-read format, and start the sensation and perception resume with your strongest features. If you’re a newer gradudate, start with your education, as you may not yet have much experience. If you’re a seasoned physiotherapist, start with a list of past positions and on effective, put your education second. Be specific about exactly what each course or position entailed. Keep things succinct but don’t be tempted to leave out important information.
Things like marital status, High School test scores or a photograph are generally not seen as necessary information. As for length, keep it down to a page if you’re just starting out, and don’t go beyond around two and a half pages if you’re more experienced. Ensure that all information can be verified as needed. DO pay attention to the little things. If your resume is and perception paper term papers, a representation of who you are, then sloppiness, spelling mistakes and poor formatting make you look careless. Solution: Proofread everything a few times and get someone else to read it over and give you a second opinion, too. Make sure the essay management style and design of the resume is essay, clean and simple, and don’t overwhelm the reader with too many fonts, colours or clutter on the page. Double check things like phone numbers and exact dates of essay on effective classroom management, courses.
Tip: check that you use correct Canadian spelling (i.e. “colour” and not “color”) and avoid any regional idioms or phrases. On Wealthy Nation With Healthy Me. Particularly for newer graduates, self-promotion can feel a little awkward. But a resume is, to put it bluntly, selling you as a physiotherapist. So don’t be too shy about marketing yourself! Avoid “mousey” language in essay on effective classroom, cover letters.
This means cutting out language like “I’m would really appreciate it if…” or “I hope you don’t mind…” or “I’m so sorry, but…”. This makes you look unsure and unconfident. Solution: If you’re good at essay on wealthy with me, something, say so. It will take some time to get acquainted with certain cultural norms and the healthcare system, so to start, avoid making any assumptions. This means spelling out essay on effective classroom management, your qualifications clearly if you earned them abroad, and nation begins with me, making sure that you’re using standard vocabulary and technical terms that your potential employers will be familiar with. Solution: Briefly tell the reader precisely what you learnt in each course, not just the on effective management course title. Don’t assume they’ll know what you did in previous roles – lay it out for them. Be explicit about the exact responsibilities you had, and remember to include your interactions with both patients and other staff members. Contrast Essay Prompts. The standards and norms in a Canadian organization might be very different to what you’re used to, so make it easy for your employers to understand just what your past titles meant and how that translated to your patients. Take care to on effective classroom management highlight any experience you’ve had with diverse and multicultural populations.
Tip: Follow a problem-solution model: list a skill you applied in context and sensation and perception paper term, explain the results you got and how this benefitted your previous employers. Of course, resumes are professional documents, but don’t be afraid of showcasing your unique personality. Classroom Management. In fact, your resume may garner more attention if it’s easy to see the human being behind the qualifications. You probably will be up against similarly qualified applicants, so try to stand out by showing what makes you different from with healthy, them. Solution: Paint a picture of a well-rounded person in your resume. Classroom. Make sure you are showing some sort of competence in every area of graph japanese, care, and add in any experience with other disciplines, as well as an explanation of how those skills translate to physiotherapy. On Effective Management. Physiotherapists need to have solid physiotherapy education and training and convey trust to their clients – but they also have to be personable and genuinely caring, so make sure this comes through on your resume.
Briefly note other courses you’ve done, even publications and awards, and, if you find an opportunity, throw in a line or two about why physiotherapy is your passion in term papers, the first place. Tip: don’t merely list jobs and essay on effective classroom management, roles – use verbs in the active tense to draw attention to what you actually did , rather than the passive roles you held. Contrast Essay Prompts. Of course, a resume is not a static thing. As you develop your career as a physiotherapist, and as you slowly add to your expertise, your resume will change and adapt. On Effective Classroom. Regularly re-appraise your goals to make sure that you’re still conveying the contrast prompts right message, and tweak it with every new application. Alberta Learning Information Service (ALIS) CAPS: University of Alberta Career Centre Settlement.org (for Ontario, but applicable to all over Canada) Government of essay classroom management, Canada Youth Services. 0 comments 246 Views 0 Followers. I would try incorporating global cardiovascular ex.
Any recommendations with facilitating a bronchiectasis action plan? Self management (airway clearance techniques) done. For patients unable to go into prone and can't stand, what other ways do people use to stretch out hip flexors? I don't work with kids but work with frail/complex.
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Essay: Agency theory – the Principal-Agent Model. 1.1 Behavioral Economics. Many of the assumptions on which economic models and theories are based are often wrong when we critically look at them from the classroom management, perspective of social sciences. Thinking about yourself, do you always make fully rational choices that are only self-interested? Are your preferences time-consistent? Most of you will answer no to these questions or will act different from these assumptions when faced with a decision in real life. Economics traditionally views actors in an economic world as unemotional maximizers. Behavioral economics incorporates the facts, models and methods from neighboring sciences to provide a more realistic representation of human behavior into economics.
It studies the findings about human behavior and social interaction of mainly psychology, but also sociology, anthropology and biology. Behavioral economics explores the implication that these findings from other sciences have for in all persuasive economic behavior. Classroom Management! The idea of behavioral economics goes back to the 1950s when Hebert Simon tried to graph for writing japanese, reunify economics and psychology. Around 1970 cognitive psychologists started to look into economic decision-making. The main essence of essay behavioral economics is that increasing the realism of the underlying assumption of sensation and perception papers economic models and theories will improve the field of economics. Rabin (2002) states, ‘Ceteris paribus, the more realistic our assumptions about economic actors, the better our economics. Hence, economists should aspire to make our assumptions about humans as psychological realistic as possible’. Behavioral economists investigate in which ways the management, behavior of individuals differs from the assumptions made in the standard model and then show why this deviating behavior matters for economic theory. Essay Paf Museum Karachi! The last decade, the efforts of behavioral economists to on effective classroom management, incorporate more realistic notions of human nature into graph for writing japanese, economics have increased remarkably. Most behavioral economists have retained the basic frameworks of the neo-classical models, but supplemented them with more realistic assumptions. The main assumptions of standard economics that behavioral economics criticize are unbounded rationality, unbounded willpower and unbounded selfishness.
Unbounded selfishness, the assumption that people are fully self-interested, is one of the building blocks of many economic theories and models. Behavioral economics, however, have found that self-interest is not all of human motivation. On Effective Classroom! People tend to be altruistic, which implies that people care about others’ people well-being as well. Moreover, it turns out that people do not only care about other people, but they also care about the nation me, fairness and distribution of resources and classroom management even about the intentions and motives of other people’s behavior. One of the most classic theories in economics is the Expected Utility Theory. The Expected Utility Theory states that people value decisions by weighting the and perception paper term papers, utility of an outcome by essay, its probability. Behavioral economists have done a lot of contrast prompts research on this theory and found that this theory does not seem to hold in the real world. They developed Prospect Theory, which incorporates psychophysical features that Expected Utility theory misses.
Two main conclusions of Prospect Theory are that people are loss averse and that people do not weight probabilities linearly. In my thesis I will investigate how individuals weight probabilities and essay on effective classroom management how we can incorporate a more realistic view of probability weighting into the Principal Agency Theory. It seems that behavioral economists have reasonable arguments why we should incorporate assumptions of social sciences into graph paper japanese, economics, however not all economists agree with behavioral economists. Camerer (1999), argues that most of the active resistance to behavioral economics is the fear that the alternatives of psychology to rationality are too fragmented and can therefore not suggest a coherent alternative. Other researchers argue that even though economics might not be perfect, psychology is neither. Essay On Effective Classroom! Levin (2009), argues that psychology is mainly focused on the behavior of individuals while economics is focused on the behavior of sensation paper papers individuals in groups. He states that this is a crucial difference, which should be considered before psychological findings are incorporated in essay classroom, economic theories. Moreover, Winter (2014) argues that behavioral economics take on a too negative view on individual decision making. He believes that emotions do not lead us away from rational decision making, but that we need emotions to contrast prompts, serve as a signaling mechanism to essay management, coordinate our actions and to arrive at paper japanese, an equilibrium. He claims that our emotional system and our rational system are intertwined around each other and are therefore inseparable from each other.
However, most economist lately have agreed upon the main arguments of behavioral economists and believe that many of the assumptions on which economic theories and management models are based are not consistent with reality. 1.2 Agency Theory. In my thesis I will investigate the Principal-Agent Model and I will try to tweak one of the assumptions on which the model is based according to the principles of Behavioral Economics. The agency theory model was first formulated in the early 1970s, by the early 1990s it had become the dominant institutional logic of corporate governance. An agency relationship arises between two parties when one of the parties, the agent, acts for the other party, the principal. The principal-agent framework is letters uk, thus a method that we use to investigate problems in which the principal hires an agent to perform a certain task for him/her. The problem that arises in on effective, this framework is moral hazard, since the agent might not have the same incentives as the principal. Moreover, in the classical model, the actions of the essay prompts, agent are not observable, leaving them with the incentive to shirk. To elaborate on this, the model assumes that an agent chooses an action that influences the outcome, but does not determine the outcome. Classroom! The principal can thus observe the outcome, but cannot observe the action that the agent has undertaken; therefore we have a hidden action problem. Since the agent’s actions are unobservable, the principal cannot simply pay the agent for the actions he or she has undertaken.
To overcome the hidden action problem, the agent will try to bridge the informational asymmetries by installing information systems and by monitoring the agent. The principal tries to align his incentives with the incentives of the agent and hopes thereby to and perception paper term papers, positively influence the behavior of the agent. There are many tools that can align the interests of the principal and classroom management the agent, such as bonuses, piece rates, stock options, profit sharing etc. The problem with an incentive contract is that it will impose risk on the agent since the agent does not have full influence on the outcome. The main assumptions on which agency theory is build, are widely discussed by behavioral economists. For Writing! They state, for example, that agents are work averse and on effective self-interested utility maximizers. Behavioral economists, argue that these assumptions are not consistent with behavior of agents in real life. Perrow (1986) observes that in smoking should be banned essay, some organizational structures human beings are other-regarding and even altruistic.
He states that classical agency theory fails to recognize the cooperative aspect of social life. Sociologists believe that we need a more nuanced understanding of the incentives of essay on effective classroom principals, agents and organizations. If we could make the assumptions on which agency theory is based more realistic, we would get a more realistic theory that shows us a more realistic picture of the interaction between agent and principal. The principal agent theory is graph, based on the expected utility theory, which states that people make decisions under uncertainty by multiply the outcome by the probability. Behavioral economists disagree with this theory and developed Prospect Theory. As I stated before, in my thesis I will try to incorporate a more realistic view of probability judgment, which is a part of prospect theory, into the model of agency theory. I will start by describing the classical model of agency theory. Then I will continue by discussing why we need a more realistic view of probability judgment into the model. I will conclude with which change I believe should be made into the model and the impact that it has on essay on effective classroom management the model. 2. Essay Karachi! Agency Theory ‘ The Model. 2.1 The standard model.
In the Principal-Agent model we have a principal whose payoff is influenced by an outcome, which can be good or bad. The principal hires an on effective, agent who helps him to achieve this outcome. The agent has to decide how much effort he/she will put in. The amount of effort that the agent will put in, influences the outcome. Smoking Should Essay! However, effort is costly and it will not provide a certain outcome, we thus cope with uncertainty in the model. The principal cannot observe how much effort the agent puts in; he/she can only observe the outcome. Essay Classroom! The model tries to sensation and perception paper term papers, achieve a Pareto efficient outcome, which implies that no one can be made better off without making someone else worse off. Two things to consider for a Pareto optimal outcome is the optimal division of risk and essay classroom management the optimal division of the profits. The Pareto optimal division is a solution of a constrained maximization problem. For the contrast, standard model we assume that the agent is risk averse and the principal is risk neutral. The agent does not need to choose effort in this version of the essay classroom, model.
We consider a model of binary uncertainty and assume that the contrast, outcome can either have a value high, H, or low, L, where HL. The principal will receive the essay management, profit, H or L, minus the sensation term, wage paid to the agent, gH or gL. We will define the utility function of the principal as u(x) and essay on effective the utility function of the agent as v(x). Where v'(x) 0 and v'(x) PL, meaning that the more effort put in the higher the chance that the high outcome occurs. Since effort is not costless, the cv covering letters, agent’s utility function will change and cost of effort will be subtracted from the utility gained from wage. We assume that the cost of low effort is zero. When the agent is risk averse and the principal is risk neutral, the essay, agent will get a fixed wage. This fixed wage will be equal to U-1(U0+c) for high effort and U-1(U0) for low effort. The Pareto optimal outcome depends on which of the following is should be banned in all public persuasive, higher E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) or E(V|eL)-U-1(U0). We call this outcome the on effective classroom, first best outcome.
However, it can only be attained in two special cases. The first case is when effort is observable, since the principal can then set a wage according to the effort the contrast prompts, agent has put in. The second case is essay on effective classroom management, when the agent is risk neutral, the principal can then transfer all risk towards the agent by should be banned in all public, giving himself a set wage. In this case the agent will choose the effort level that maximizes his expected utility and will thus only choose high effort when the increase in expected utility is larger then the costs of high effort. When effort is unobservable and the agent is essay on effective management, risk averse, the first best outcome cannot be achieved. Smoking Should Places Persuasive! Since the on effective management, agent is risk averse optimal risk sharing would imply that the agent would receive a fixed wage. However, this will not incentivize the essay paf museum karachi, agent to put in more effort.
First I assume that E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) E(V|eL)-U-1(U0), meaning that high effort increases the essay management, value for the principal more than it costs the agent. For the agent to accept the contract and to choose high effort, two conditions must hold. The first condition is contrast prompts, incentive compatibility, meaning that the agent will get a higher expected utility by choosing high effort than by choosing low effort. The IC condition can be written as, PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-c’PLu(WG)+(1-PL)u(WB). The second condition is the individual rationality condition, implying that the agent will get a higher expected utility by on effective, choosing the contract and high effort then by declining the contract. This condition is written as PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-c’U0. The principal needs to maximize E(V-W) subject two both constrains.
The second-best contract will yield lower expected utility for the principal than the first-best contract, this is because he/she needs to induce the agent to exert high effort. 3. Decision Making Under Uncertainty. 3.1 Probability valuation. ‘Economists traditionally have assumed that, when faced with uncertainty, people correctly form their subjective probabilistic assessments according to the laws of probability. But researchers have documented many systematic departures from rationality in judgment under uncertainty’, (Rabin, 1998). Faced with decision under uncertainty, people depart from perfect rationality and and perception papers seem to rely on some heuristic principles, which help them to make the complex task of assessing probabilities to a simpler judgmental operation. This can, however, lead to systematic errors.
Hence, it seems that people are not following the on effective classroom, principles of probability theory when they judge the likelihood of uncertain events. ‘Some deviations of subjective from objective probability seem reliable, systematic and essay paf museum difficult to eliminate’ (Kahneman #038; Tversky, 1974). If Kahneman and Tversky are right that these biases are systematic, we could incorporate one or more of these deviations into essay classroom, our Principal-Agency model. We would make the model more realistic from sensation and perception paper term papers a psychological perspective. There are several biases in probability judgment and I will discuss a few. Management! One of the biases is the essay paf museum karachi, Law of Small Numbers, it implies that people exaggerate the chance that a small probability will occur, contrary they undervalue the probability that an essay on effective management, event with a high probability will occur. Contrast Essay! People become less sensitive to changes in probabilities as they move away from a reference point. In probability distribution 0 and 1 can be seen as the reference points, which implies that the weighting function can be pictured as an on effective classroom management, inverse S-shape. This leads to the overvaluation of small probabilities and the undervaluation of higher probabilities. In section 4.2, I show by means of figure 1 what this bias graphically does with probability weighting.
Another bias in people’s judgment of probability is representativeness. Representativeness implies that a person will evaluate the probability of an uncertain event by two degrees. First, the degree to which it is similar to other known events and second the degree to which it reflects similar features of the contrast essay prompts, process by which it is generated. People will attain a higher probability to the event that appears more representative to them. This causes people to make wrong judgments since an event that is more representative does not actually need to be more likely. Representativeness can for example lead to an excessive reaction to current information and too little weight on the prior odds. The representativeness heuristic is on effective, most of the time systematic in direction. In section 4.2, I also show on the hand of figure 1 what the representativeness bias graphically does with probability weighting. Letters! Moreover, we have the on effective classroom, isolation effect, which explains that people tend to karachi, often isolate consecutive probabilities instead of on effective treating them together.
This leads to inconsistent preferences when the same choice is presented in graph paper, different forms. There are many more biases, many of essay on effective classroom them probably not even known yet. In my thesis I will concentrate on the Law of Small Numbers and the representativeness bias. I will build decision weights that adapt the and perception paper term papers, probabilities towards the judgments of individuals that are affect by these two biases. 3.2 Implication for the Principal Agent Model. The most important consequence of these findings is that people do not simply interpret a probability as a given number, but since they are not fully rational they value this number differently based on judgment. The beliefs and expectations of an essay classroom, individual about the probability of a certain event will differ from the actual probability of that event. They will therefore assign a different probability to the event than would be rational. Consequently, we need a different theory of choice under uncertainty; we need to replaced probabilities in the model by decision weights.
Decision weights take into account the contrast prompts, beliefs and expectations that the individual has about the probability of on effective a certain event. Since the likelihood of a certain event is an important part of making decisions under uncertainty, replacing probabilities with decision weights will make a model more realistic and would thus lead towards a more optimal outcome. Paf Museum Karachi! I will build decision weights on the two biases I just discussed, the Law of management Small Numbers and representativeness, and incorporate them into the Principal Agent model. Important is to notice that since people hold different knowledge, different believes and have different manners to assess probabilities no single probability will be interpret the same. Therefore, the decision weights of the principal and agent will differ from each other.
Moreover, we could argue that the principal has more information and on top of smoking should be banned public that might be able to make more rational judgments since there might be some systems in classroom management, place for preventing him/her from making these kind of non-rational judgments. The fact that people judge probabilities as decision weights can have many implications. The principal might be aware of this and can therefore manipulate the decision weight that the agent will assign to the outcome. If we take for example the representativeness bias, the principal might manipulate the representativeness of the outcome he prefers, making that outcome seem more salient to the agent will cause the agent to put a higher decision weight on the preferred outcome of the principal. However, there is also a possibility that the principal does not know that the agent does not make a rational judgment of the letters uk, probabilities. The principal will then make a wrong assessment of the valuation process of the agent and essay on effective classroom this will then lead to an outcome that is sub-optimal for one or both parties. As can be seen, substituting probabilities by decision weights can have many implications into the Principal Agent model, which I will discuss next. 4. Paper For Writing Japanese! The Adapted Model with Binary Uncertainty, without effort. 4.1. Adapting the standard Principal Agent Model. In its simplest version the Principal Agent model starts with 2 persons, a principal that hires an essay, agent.
The principal cannot observe effort, he/she can only observe the outcome. The agent and principal thus have to cope with a decision under uncertainty. As I discussed in my introduction, classical economic theory uses Expected Utility Theory for decision-making under uncertainty. Contrast Essay! Agency theory is also based on Expected Utility Theory. Behavioral economists, however, invented Prospect Theory.
Prospect Theory introduces a more realistic view of classroom management decision making under uncertainty and I will change the Principal-Agent model by incorporating some of the findings of this theory. To be more specific, I will substitute the probabilities in the model by decision weights. When we consider binary uncertainty, as discussed in section 2.1, we deal with risk and the suggestions of Prospect Theory will be of importance. One of the assumptions on sensation and perception papers which the binary model is build is the probability distribution P(H) = p and P(L) = 1 ‘ p. This assumption is one of the essay on effective classroom management, basics of the qualitative law of probability; it is called the essay prompts, conjunction rule. The conjunction rule states that the probability of a conjunction P(A#038;B), cannot exceed the probabilities off either P(A) or P(B), since it is an extension of these elements. Behavioral economists despite have found that judgments under uncertainty are not bounded by the conjunction rule, since they are often based on intuitive heuristics. A violation of the essay on effective, conjunction rule is called the conjunction fallacy and often occurs because of the representativeness bias. I argue that people rely on a natural assessment to produce an estimation or a prediction, which most of the time is not rational. To adapt a more realistic view on probability judgment to nation begins with healthy, the Principal-Agent model, I will substitute the probabilities within the essay on effective classroom, model with decision weights.
There are many biases in graph for writing, probability judgment and to make decision weights as realistic as possible, all these biases would need to be incorporated. This is too extensive for my thesis and probably not even possible, therefore I focus on two biases, the Law of Small Numbers and representativeness. Decision weights are a function of probabilities, in which parameters represent the biases. The probabilities will, thus, be affected by essay classroom management, the degree of these biases. 4.2 Implementing decision weights into the standard Principal Agent Model. Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992) suggest that decision weights should be specified by the following formula: The parameter ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers, it establishes whether ‘small’ probabilities will be under- or over-weighted. Term Papers! The parameter accomplishes this by management, specifying the slope of the essay karachi, curve and it thereby measures the sensitivity towards changes in probability. ?? can take on values between 0 and 1, so 0”??1.
The smaller . the larger the deviation of the probability weighting function is from linear weighting. When ?? = 1, the individual does not overvalue small probabilities and undervalue large probabilities. The parameter ?? originally represents a degree of optimism, it can either shift the probability curve upward or downward. Originally it can take on values below or above 1, presenting an essay classroom management, optimistic or pessimistic view on the probability of the outcome. I suggest using this parameter to represent the cv covering uk, representativeness bias. If a certain outcome seems more representative to an individual he or she will attach a higher perceived probability to that outcome, consequently it will lead to an upward shift of the probability function. Since there is a positive relationship between probability judgment and representativeness, ?? can only take on the value 1 or higher, so ‘?? 1. If a certain outcome does not seem representative to the individual, ?? will be equal to 1. Moreover, if ?? = 1 the conjunction rule will hold. Essay On Effective Classroom Management! If ??1, however, the parameter will provide more weight on the probability of the outcome.
Concluding, the decision weight given to each outcome is thus the function of the probability distribution as described above. When ??=??=1, Expected Utility Theory holds. However, most individual behavior deviates from this situation. Figure 1, shows how the contrast prompts, parameters originally proposed changes the probability distribution. The left side of the figure shows the classroom management, effect of changing the Law of smoking be banned in all public essay Small Numbers has on the probability distribution. The lower, . the steeper the inverse S-shape becomes and thus the more low probabilities will be overvalued and high probabilities undervalued. The right side shows the representativeness bias, keeping ?? constant. In my case, ?? would only lead to an upward shift of the probability distribution. Causing the point at which p = 0.5 to essay on effective, only shift above the linear line.
Figure 1, Decision weight originally proposed by Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992). Sensation And Perception Paper Papers! Notice that in essay on effective, my case ??1, and not below 1. Retained from Gonzalez, R., #038; Wu, G. (1999). Smoking Be Banned In All Public Essay! On the on effective, shape of the probability weighting function. Cognitive psychology, 38(1), 129-166. The decision weights I will use are defined as follows. Where 0 ‘ ‘?? 1, ‘?? 1, i represents the discussed individual (A for agent and P for principal) and H or L stands for high or low. Paper Japanese! For example ??_(A,H) stands for the representativeness bias of the agent towards the high outcome.
Accordingly, I will substitute the probabilities in the principal-agent model by on effective classroom management, the decision weights as specified in equation 3. The weights that will be assigned to the parameters will differ for each individual and for each situation. Some people might be very sensitive to the Law of Small probabilities and therefore will have a low value for contrast prompts ?? in management, there decision weight equation. Paper For Writing! The weight that is essay management, attached to public places, . will depend entirely on the representativeness of the specific situation that the individual faces. In section 2.1 I showed the maximization problem that the essay classroom, principal faces, see equation 1. The maximization problem will change since I will incorporate the decision weights in the model. In section 3.2, I discussed the different scenarios that could occur. For now I will discuss the scenario in smoking should places essay, which the principal is rational and does not use decision weights, the agent however judges probabilities according to judgmental heuristics.
I will thus substitute the probabilities by decision weights for the agent only. The model can now be defined as follows. The optimization problem can be solved by using the Lagrangian method. The first step in this method is rewriting the constraint to. We can then rewrite the problem according to the Langrangian method as follows.
The first order conditions will now be. 4.3 Exploring the effect of decision weights on the standard Principal Agent model. 4.3.1 Effect on the participation constraint. Now that we implemented the essay classroom, decision weights into the Principal Agent model we can explore the cv covering, effect that it has on the model. The effect that the decision weight has on the model depends fully on the parameters . the representativeness bias, and . the management, Law of Small Numbers. If we assume that ??=1 for the agent, we can investigate the effect of the representativeness bias. When one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, ?? will be greater than 1. It cannot be that both outcomes seem more representative to him/her, therefore we use ??H and essay prompts ??L, representing either the on effective classroom management, high outcome or the low outcome. If the agent feels that the high outcome is more representative, ??H 1 and ??L = 1. He will put more weight on the value of the high outcome than the rational agent would do in the original model. Therefore, the expected utility of the agent will be higher than in contrast essay, the original model and consequently the reservation utility will be satisfied faster.
This could mean that the principal will actually need to offer a lower wage, so gH could be decreased, and the reservation utility will still be satisfied. The principal could also keep gH equal and essay on effective classroom decrease gL or moreover the principal could increase gH and decrease gL even more. If the principal is aware of the behavior of the agent, the principal could anticipate on it and adjust the wages in such a way that is profitable for him-/herself. The optimal choice depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing, as I will calculate later on. Smoking Persuasive! If the other way around, agent X puts more weight on the low outcome since it feels more representative, ??H = 1 and ??L 1. The same thing will occur now, the value constraint will be higher and the reservation utility will thus be satisfied faster. The principal could thus offer a different waging scheme. The optimal choice once again depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.
Concluding, if the agent puts more weight on on effective one of the outcomes, the value of the participation constraint will be higher than in the original model. The principal could use this information and adapt his wage scheme to it, which will be profitable for him/her. However, the effect will be smaller for essay prompts the low outcome than for the high outcome, since gHgL. We move on by investigating the situation in which ??H=??L=1 and on effective management ?? 1-p, and on top of that the agent feels like the high outcome is more representative, so ??H1; the cv covering uk, two effects might actually compensate each other and the decision weights might be approximately equal to the original probabilities. The principal might not change anything in the wage scheme in this case. However, if for example ??=0.75, the low outcome has a higher probability than the high outcome, 1-p p, and the agent feels like the high outcome is more representative, so ??H1; the two effects reinforce each other and the high outcome is essay, overvalued by the agent. Moreover, the principal could in this situation offer a lower gH to paper term papers, the agent and the agent will still achieve its reservation utility, or he could offer a lower gL or he could offer a higher gH and an even lower gL. The optimal choice depends on on effective management the condition of optimal risk sharing.
4.3.2 Effect on the condition of optimal risk sharing. The condition of optimal risk sharing can be calculated by the first order conditions. We could rewrite both equation 7 and equation 8 in graph for writing, the form ?? is equal to. ?? tells us with which value the maximum value of the objective function increases when we relax the constraint. Equation 7 and 8 are rewritten as follows. Since ?? is equal to . we will get the following condition of optimal risk sharing. The left hand side of the equation tells us how the utility of the principal changes when gH increases by 1 unit relative to the change in the utility of the agent with 1 unit increase in gH. The right hand side tells us the same but then for essay classroom gL. In the general model the probabilities that the agent and principal adjudge to the outcomes are equal, therefore both agent and principal assign the same weight to the outcomes in their utility functions. Uk! Consequently, the probabilities do no play a role in the optimization problem; they disappear in this equation since they cancel each other out. In my new model the essay on effective classroom, probabilities are substituted by decision weights for for writing the agent. The agent and principal do not assign the same weights to the outcomes in their utility function anymore.
Therefore, the probabilities do play a role in the optimal solution. This will have an impact on the optimal risk sharing, since the marginal rate of substitutions need to be equal to classroom, each other for optimal risk sharing. In case the agent overweighs the probability that the high outcome will be achieved there are several things we could do, as I discussed before. The most optimal choice depends on the optimal risk sharing condition. When we look at the optimal risk sharing and the MRS’s we will see the following effect; when the agent overweighs the outcome high, the left hand side of the equation will be lower than the right hand side. This occurs since the denominator will be higher than the essay on wealthy nation begins with me, numerator on essay management the left side of the equation. Sensation Paper Papers! The agent attaches more weight to gH, and thus values gH higher, then the principal does. Essay On Effective Classroom! Therefore, it is uk, optimal for the principal to on effective management, give the agent more gH and less gL. Cv Covering! When doing so, the MRS’s will at the optimal point become equal to each other again and this is what we ultimately need for optimal risk division. More gH will cause a decrease in essay classroom, v'(gH) since the utility curve of the agent is convex, he/she is risk averse, u'(H-gH) will stay the same since the graph paper japanese, principal is risk neutral and thus has a linear utility curve.
For the on effective classroom management, same reason less gL will cause an increase in v'(gL) and u'(L-gL) will stay the same. Therefore the ratio on graph japanese the left and right hand side of the essay classroom management, equation will become equal again. Cv Covering Letters Uk! Noteworthy is that in the original model gH=gL since the agent is risk averse and the principal is risk neutral, meaning that it is essay classroom, optimal for letters the principal to carry all risk. In my new model this is not the case anymore, the essay management, agent will get more gH and uk less gL than in management, the original case. The agent is now subject to risk and since his/her concave utility function implies that the expected utility of an uncertain wage is lower than that of a certain wage, the agent needs to receive a risk premium.
The wage scheme will however raise the expected utility of the principal by such an contrast essay prompts, amount that it will be profitable to pay the agent the risk premium. Moreover, Gonzalez and Wu (1999) argue that when w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the essay on effective classroom management, individual tends to should be banned in all, embrace risk in classroom, that specific situation. Therefore, in some situations an unequal gH and gL will not make the sensation and perception, agent worse off. All by all, in this scenario the agent overvalues the high probability and w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the expected utility of the classroom, agent can thus be decreased. The optimal way to do this is thus by increasing gH and decreasing gL in and perception paper term papers, such a way that the total sum of management wages is lower than in the original case, since the overall expected utility of the agent is sensation and perception, then still equal to the reservation utility. The agent will be equally well of since the expected utility in both models is equal to his/her reservation utility. The principal however is better off since the classroom management, total sum of wages is lower than in the original case and this will increase his expected utility. This works the other way around when the agent undervalues the probability that the good outcome will occur and karachi overvalues the probability of the low outcome. On Effective Classroom! In this case he will value gH less than the principal and gL higher than the principal. The best thing that the principal can do is to give the agent less gH and more gL. By giving the agent less gH, v'(gH) will increase since his utility function is convex.
On the other hand, v'(gL) will decrease since we increase gL. The ratio on essay the left side of the on effective classroom, equation will then decrease and the ratio on the right hand side of the equation will increase. The condition of optimal risk division will be restored again and thus the cv covering letters, optimal solution in this case is less gH and more gL. The agent will not be worse or better off since his expected utility will remain the essay classroom management, same, however since the wages, gH and gL are not equal anymore the agent has to paf museum, carry risk and essay on effective management asks a risk premium. The principal however has different beliefs about the probabilities of the outcomes high and prompts low and this makes it profitable in essay management, terms of expected utility for the principal to increase gL and decrease gH. Namely, the cv covering letters, principal will fulfill the reservation utility with more gL and less gH, since the principal beliefs that the chance that the outcome L occurs is on effective management, lower than the agent does.
The principal is therefore willing to pay this risk premium. 4.3.3 Total effect on the maximization problem. The new version of the general model that I suggest thus substitutes probabilities by decisions weights for the agent. The decision weights depend on two variables that represent the letters, Law of Small Numbers and the representativeness bias and can have different effects on the model. The agent and essay on effective classroom management principal now value the probability that a certain outcome will occur differently.
As I discussed the effect that this has fully depends on the values of the nation healthy me, parameters and the implication that this has on the participation constraint and the condition of optimal risk sharing. Essay Classroom Management! Moreover, the condition of optimal risk sharing ultimately decides what the most optimal wage scheme is and whether this is profitable or unprofitable for the principal. When the principal is essay nation healthy, fully aware of the on effective classroom management, behavior of the sensation paper papers, agent he/she could try to on effective classroom, manipulate the decision weight of the agent for his/her own sake. As discussed before, when one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, he/she will attach a higher value to it and therefore will be equally well off with a lower waging scheme. When the essay, principal is aware of this mechanism, he/she can make one of the outcomes seem more representative to on effective management, the agent. In this way, the principal could increase his own expected utility without affecting the contrast, expecting utility of the agent. Classroom Management! The principal would be most likely to make the high outcome seem more representative since this has the essay, most profitable effect for essay classroom management the principal. Another scenario occurs when the principal is not aware that the agent values the outcomes with decision weights. The principal will in this case simply think that the original model occurs and set gH equal to gL. However, we have seen in the new model that this is not optimal in for writing japanese, every case anymore.
The principal would thus suggest a waging scheme to the agent that is not optimal. This could imply that the principal is not maximizing his/her expected utility and that of the agent. Moreover, in some cases the essay classroom, principal could even offer the agent a waging scheme that the agent will not accept. This shows the importance of the new model, the more realistic view helps to attain the optimal situation; the maximization of the utility of uk both the on effective management, agent and principal. 5. Contrast Essay! The Adapted 2?2 Model. 5.1 Implementing decision weights into the 2?2 model. In section 2.2 I discussed the 2?2 model, which is an extension of the general model.
I will focus on the general case with the on effective classroom management, second best result, since this is the most likely case. The model will again be adjusted by substituting the probabilities by decision weights. I will also implement here the second scenario in which the principal is rational and the agent is not. Since the probabilities in the 2?2 model change, the decision weights will look different as well. We will get four different decision weights; the interpretation of the variables stays the same. ?? presents the representativeness of the outcome, so it depends on on wealthy nation healthy G or B. Consequently, ?? has the same value in essay classroom, PH as in letters uk, PL, ??H, and ?? has the same value in (1-PH) and (1-PL), ??L. ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers; this variable stays the on effective management, same across the essay paf museum karachi, different outcomes. The decision weights are as follows. The principal tries to maximize E(V-W) subject to the two conditions explained in section 2. There is one critical assumption made; the expected outcome minus wage is higher when high effort is essay on effective classroom management, put in than with low effort.
The two conditions will be rewritten using decision weights instead of probabilities. The incentive compatibility condition will change to. The second condition, the individual rationality condition, will change to. 5.2 Exploring the effect of decision weights on the 2?2 model. I will concentrate on paf museum the effect that the on effective management, implementation of decision weights has on the IC condition. The decision weight is, as discussed, based on contrast two biases and I will first investigate the effect of on effective classroom management both biases separately. When ??H=??L=1 and ?? pL the effect of the Law of Small Numbers will be greater on the left hand side of the equation than on the right hand side. Therefore, the value of the on wealthy with healthy, left hand side will become closer to the value of the right hand side and it will thus be harder to achieve the incentive compatibility condition. Moreover, the on effective classroom management, Law of Small Numbers has another effect.
As you can see in figure 1, when the probabilities are very small or very high, the curve is essay, almost flat. Consequently, a change in this area has almost no psychological effect even though mathematically it would have an impact. For example, when the chance of a bad outcome is essay on effective classroom, very low for essay low effort, 0,002, and for high effort, 0.001. On Effective Classroom Management! Since both probabilities are so small the individual will attach the same weight to both probabilities, even though the smoking be banned public places persuasive essay, bad outcome for low effort is actually twice as high as for high effort. This would imply that the value on the left hand side and on effective classroom management right hand side of the equation become closer to each other and it would be harder to fulfill the condition. Hence, both effects of the Law of cv covering uk Small Numbers have the same effect. The two effects together, would thus enhance each other. When ??=1 and ??H1, ??L=1 o r ??L1, ??H=1 we can investigate the effect of the essay on effective management, representativeness bias. When ??H1 and ??L=1, the probabilities w(PH) and w(PL) will increase by the same amount while w(1-PH) and w(1-PL) will stay equal to there actual probabilities. Since this change will impact both sides of the cv covering uk, condition by the same amount the representativeness bias will actually have no effect.
The exact same situation occurs when ??L1, ??H=1. Hence, only the essay on effective classroom, Law of graph for writing Small Numbers will have an effect on the incentive compatibility condition and once ?? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Economics essay, dissertation or piece of essay on effective management coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and paf museum karachi we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to essay classroom, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Economics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Economics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:
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