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Aggregated Antibiograms and Monitoring of Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Highlight and copy the short, desired format. Community-specific antimicrobial susceptibility data may help monitor trends among drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and guide empiric therapy. Research Paper Stock. Because active, population-based surveillance for spirtual invasive pneumococcal disease is accurate but resource intensive, we compared the scientific revolution, proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates obtained from existing antibiograms, a less expensive system, to that obtained from 1 year of active surveillance for spirtual short Georgia, Tennessee, California, Minnesota, Oregon, Maryland, Connecticut, and New York. For all sites, proportions of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates from a dream antibiograms were within 10 percentage points (median 3.65) of those from invasive-only isolates obtained through active surveillance. Only 23% of spirtual antibiograms distinguished between isolates intermediate and paper prices resistant to penicillin; 63% and 57% included susceptibility results for short essays erythromycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, respectively. Aggregating existing hospital antibiograms is a simple and relatively accurate way to estimate local prevalence of research penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcus; however, antibiograms offer limited data on isolates with intermediate and high-level penicillin resistance and isolates resistant to other agents. Infections from Streptococcus pneumoniae tax the healthcare system in the United States and other countries. Scientific advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of pneumococcal infections through antibiotics and licensure of vaccines for both adults and spirtual short essays children; however, the last few decades have witnessed the emergence of on accounting S. pneumoniae resistance to antibiotics ( 1 ). In a multistate, population-based surveillance system that follows invasive disease from pneumococcus and other bacterial pathogens, the percent of isolates resistant to penicillin reached 24% in 1998; concurrent increases in resistance to other antimicrobial drugs have also been noted among penicillin-resistant pneumococci ( 1 , 2 ). Implications of drug-resistance extend beyond the laboratory and into clinical practice as treatment failures from drug resistance have been reported with meningitis ( 3 – 5 ) and short essays otitis media ( 6 , 7 ). Phd Thesis On Accounting. In some studies, increased death and disease in spirtual patients hospitalized with pneumonia caused by high-level ?-lactam-resistant pneumococci have been reported ( 8 , 9 ). Measuring pneumococcal resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics enables epidemiologists and essay scholarship healthcare providers to monitor trends, develop guidelines for optimal empiric therapy, and provide impetus for and ascertain the success of educational efforts promoting the judicious use of antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance is not uniform across the United States ( 10 ). Short. Nonsusceptibility to paper prices penicillin among invasive pneumococcal isolates has been shown to range from 15% to 35% among populations in spirtual short essays the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) national surveillance system ( 1 ).

The ideal method for accurate tracking of phd thesis on accounting antimicrobial-resistance patterns in a community may be active, laboratory-based surveillance systems that collect strains for short susceptibility testing in a reference laboratory. However, this method can be costly, time-consuming, and resource intensive. Alternative methods of measuring local drug-resistant pneumococci that are less expensive and timelier are needed. One alternative is to use aggregated antibiograms. Essay Scientific. A study conducted by epidemiologists at the Oregon Health Division found that aggregating existing hospital antibiograms, also known as cumulative susceptibility data, provided relatively accurate, community-specific, drug-resistant S. pneumoniae data when compared with active-, laboratory-based surveillance, the standard criterion for invasive disease.

The investigators also found that use of local laboratory antibiograms was far less expensive and time-consuming when compared with active surveillance. Whether Oregon’s results can be generalized is unknown; however, only 12 hospitals in one city (Portland) were surveyed, and the percent of S. Short Essays. pneumoniae infections nonsusceptible to penicillin was relatively low (14%) ( 11 ). We compared the two methods of surveillance in a larger study that involved sites in geographically disparate areas and represented a larger fraction of the national population and varying degrees of drug resistance across the United States. Compare Contrast Cultures Essay. Our objective was to determine if existing hospital antibiograms could be used to estimate the percent of community-specific, drug-resistant S. pneumoniae in multiple sites. We compared the proportions of drug-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates reported by spirtual short essays, participating clinical laboratories from the contrast cultures essay, Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) sites to proportions obtained by aggregation of existing antibiograms produced by the same ABCs laboratories. Active Laboratory-Based Surveillance. ABCs, a laboratory-based active surveillance system in CDC’s Emerging Infections Program, tracks invasive disease caused by S. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens of public health importance ( 12 ). Surveillance areas included in essays this analysis were: California (CA) (San Francisco County), Connecticut (CT) (entire state), Georgia (GA) (20-county area, including Atlanta), Maryland (MD) (6-county area including Baltimore), Minnesota (MN) (7 counties), New York (NY) (7 counties), Oregon (OR) (3-county area including Portland), and Tennessee (TN) (5 counties). The total population under surveillance was 17 million. A case of invasive pneumococcal disease was defined as the isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid) from a surveillance area resident. Surveillance personnel routinely contacted all clinical microbiology laboratories in stock prices their site to identify cases and conducted audits every 6 months to spirtual essays ensure complete reporting. Pneumococcal isolates collected through ABCs were sent to reference laboratories for susceptibility testing by broth microdilution according to the methods of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) ( 13 ). Isolates were defined as susceptible, having intermediate resistance, or resistant to agents tested according to NCCLS definitions ( 14 ). We requested existing antibiograms from all clinical laboratories participating in ABCs. The antibiograms were to cover the a dream, most recent 12-month period for which completed data were available at the time of the inquiry (1997 for GA, TN, CA, MN, OR, MD, and CT; 1998 for NY).

Any identifying information (e.g., hospital name) obtained during collection of antibiogram data was removed before the data were forwarded to study investigators at CDC. Essays. Surveillance personnel also used a standardized questionnaire to query each hospital’s infection control practitioner or microbiology supervisor regarding the production and on accounting distribution of short essays local antibiograms and holiday whether antibiogram data included sterile isolates, nonsterile site isolates, or duplicates isolates from a single patient. Short Essays. We compiled total numbers of S. pneumoniae isolates identified from the ABCs sites along with the percent of intermediate and scholarship resistant isolates, focusing on nonsusceptibility to penicillin, macrolides, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (e.g., cefotaxime, ceftriaxone). We defined nonsusceptible isolates as those that were of intermediate and high-level resistance or that were simply described as not susceptible to the antibiotic tested. We aggregated data obtained from the participating hospitals within each ABCs site to produce summary antimicrobial susceptibility percentages. When generating tables comparing percent of nonsusceptible pneumococcal isolates estimated by spirtual short, antibiograms and by ABCs, we used only antibiogram data for the year in question (1997 for all sites excluding New York [1998]); antibiograms covering other periods were excluded from this portion of the analysis. Statement. Also, we used only spirtual essays antibiograms that included both the total number of isolates tested and research paper prices the percent nonsusceptible for each of the spirtual essays, antibiotics evaluated; this system allowed for aggregation of the laboratory’s data with those from other laboratories. Essay. If only a subset of isolates were tested against erythromycin and short essays extended-spectrum cephalosporins, we excluded these results from the aggregated total for erythromycin, cephalosporins, or both. We also calculated the percent of laboratories that included S. pneumoniae susceptibility testing to a variety of other antimicrobial agents and the percent of on accounting laboratories generating antibiograms that included susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria. To compare the proportions of resistant and susceptible S. pneumoniae isolates detected by essays, the two surveillance methods, we examined the proportion of contrast cultures hospitals whose aggregated antibiogram data fell within a range of ± 5% and ± 10% compared with that detected through active surveillance.

One hundred and forty-five ABCs laboratories completed the surveys; these laboratories conducted antibiotic susceptibility and other testing for a total of 170 (85%) of the 199 hospital laboratories participating in essays ABCs at the time the study was undertaken. Of the 145 responding laboratories, 108 (74%) routinely generated antibiograms. The 108 antibiograms created include pneumococcal susceptibility testing results for 140 (70%) of the 199 ABCs hospital laboratories. In-house microbiologists typically generated the antibiograms (83%), while infection control practitioners (7%) and pharmacists (10%) created the remaining. Nearly all laboratories included both sterile site (98%) and nonsterile site (92%) isolates in the antibiograms. Ninety-five percent included inpatient, and 79% included outpatient isolates. Forty-six laboratories (43%) included duplicate isolates from individual patients in their antibiograms. When asked how pneumococcal isolates with intermediate susceptibility were categorized, survey responders stated that their laboratory characterized these isolates as intermediate (37%), resistant (32%), susceptible (5%), and statement introduction nonsusceptible (22%). This question did not specify the antibiotic tested. Short Essays. Only 25 (23%) laboratories generated antibiograms that included data distinguishing isolates intermediate and paper stock prices resistant to penicillin; 77% only indicated whether the isolates were susceptible or nonsusceptible.

The average number of isolates included in the summary antibiograms was nearly double the number collected through active surveillance; the mean number of pneumococcal isolates (per site) tested for penicillin susceptibility was 417 (range 69–850) for ABCs and 826 (range 383–1,291) for summary antibiograms. Hospitals (n=40) that excluded duplicate isolates from antibiograms averaged similar numbers of isolates (mean 89 isolates) tested for penicillin susceptibility as did hospitals (n=34) whose antibiograms included multiple isolates from a single patient (mean number of isolates tested 88). Spirtual Short Essays. Of the psychology personal statement introduction, 140 hospital laboratories whose pneumococcal antibiotic susceptibility testing results were summarized in antibiograms, 96 (70%) created antibiograms with penicillin-susceptibility results in a format that could be aggregated for spirtual the year in question. The proportion of laboratories in each site that generated usable penicillin susceptibility data ranged from 70% (MD) to 100% (NY and MN). Antibiograms included susceptibility-testing results for essay high school macrolides (63%) and third-generation cephalosporins (57%). Spirtual Essays. The proportion of laboratories for which this susceptibility information was in a format that could be aggregated, however, was smaller for compare cultures macrolides (44%) and third-generation cephalosporins (39%). Spirtual Essays. For the eight sites, the proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates from ABCs ranged from 14.5% (NY) to 38.4% (TN), whereas antibiograms yielded a range of 18.5% (CA) to personal statement 41.7% (TN) (Table 1).

For all sites the overall proportion of isolates nonsusceptible to spirtual penicillin according to antibiograms was within 10 percentage points of the population- and laboratory-based surveillance (ABCs); for six sites it was within 5 percentage points. The proportion of contrast cultures essay penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates for each site identified by antibiograms was higher than that generated by ABCs (median difference: 3.65%; range 8.6% to 1.8%). No correlation existed between site-specific levels of penicillin resistance and the magnitude of difference between site-specific penicillin resistance identified by the two methods. The proportions of pneumococcal isolates nonsusceptible to short a third-generation cephalosporin and to erythromycin were lower than the proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates, regardless of the method used (Tables 2 and stock 3). Similar to the results for penicillin, the percent of strains nonsusceptible to third-generation cephalosporins or erythromycin as detected by antibiograms tended to be greater than the percent nonsusceptible detected by ABCs. In contrast, the range of the differences for third-generation cephalosporins and erythromycin detected by the two surveillance methods was larger than the range of differences for penicillin as measured for each ABCs site. The magnitude of the difference in spirtual short essays overall susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins determined by the two surveillance methods was 10% for seven of eight sites and 5% for five sites. Research Stock. The magnitude of the difference in susceptibility to erythromycin as determined by spirtual short essays, the two surveillance methods was 10% for all sites and 5% for only four sites. In addition to penicillin, cephalosporins, and macrolides, submitted antibiograms included susceptibility testing results for a variety of scholarship other antibiotics that included the following: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (35%), vancomycin (59%), clindamycin (47%), gentamycin (3.9%), and one or more fluoroquinolones (14%). Thirty-eight percent of antibiograms returned for analysis also included antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for various gram-negative bacteria. The results of our study suggest that antibiograms may be an adequate method for conducting drug-resistant S. pneumoniae surveillance for many health departments, illustrating the comparability of aggregated antibiograms that include both sterile and nonsterile site isolates to active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance for spirtual short essays invasive isolates.

For more than half the comparisons between the cultures, two methods, the short essays, difference in antibiotic resistance detected was 5 percentage points, and for paper stock prices 23 (96%) of the 24 comparisons the difference was 10 percentage points. Spirtual Short Essays. No significant differences in comparability of the two methods were noted between high- and low-resistance areas. This study indicates that antibiograms may be an alternative tool for contrast essay evaluating penicillin nonsusceptibility in a region and validates the earlier findings of the Oregon study, conducted in an area of relatively low antibiotic resistance ( 11 ). Although the estimates of level of essays resistance obtained from antibiograms approximated that from ABCs, aggregated antibiogram data tended to show a higher proportion of nonsusceptible isolates within each site and for each antibiotic evaluated. This trend is likely due to the inclusion of nonsterile (noninvasive) site isolates. In studies from centers that include both sterile and nonsterile isolates, nonsterile site isolates have been found to a dream be equally or more resistant ( 15 – 17 ). Spirtual Short Essays. The reason for this difference is unclear but may reflect differences in serotype distribution between strains causing invasive and noninvasive disease.

Disparity in results between clinical and reference laboratories could also contribute to stock this trend; use of the E test (AB Diodisk, Solna, Sweden) by spirtual, clinical laboratories might vary from the referent method (broth microdilution) by one half or one dilution ( 18 ). In this study, we were unable to examine the psychology personal introduction, role of laboratory error or differences in susceptibility-testing methods as a reason for differences in spirtual short results from antibiograms compared with those from paper prices active surveillance. Compared to spirtual short essays penicillin, differences between the two surveillance methods were greater for extended-spectrum cephalosporins and erythromycin. Paper. This finding may be because of smaller numbers of isolates included in spirtual essays the antibiograms, fewer laboratories that included susceptibility testing of S. pneumoniae to these antibiotics, or greater disagreement between clinical and reference laboratory results. We could not include antibiogram-susceptibility testing results for some hospital laboratories because only a subset of the pneumococcal isolates that were tested for penicillin nonsusceptibility were also tested for susceptibility against on accounting third-generation cephalosporins (20 laboratories) and spirtual essays erythromycin (13 laboratories). The potential explanations for why these laboratories tested only a subset of pneumococcal isolates (i.e., only penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were tested) against the same antibiotics were not indicated on the antibiograms. We chose to evaluate the a dream holiday essay, comparability of the two surveillance methods by observing how often the percent nonsusceptible isolates estimated by aggregated antibiograms differed by 5 and 10 percentage points from that estimated by ABCs active surveillance. As there exists no standardized or absolute level of antimicrobial drug resistance that would dictate a change in empiric treatment of pneumococcal infections, we chose a priori two conservative thresholds of spirtual short difference. On Accounting. A healthcare provider may not modify empiric therapy based on the differences found in our study, and the magnitude of spirtual differences reported here are likely not relevant from a public health perspective.

Trends of pneumococcal antibiotic resistance over time may be of more clinical and epidemiologic relevance than an absolute level. Knowledge of local trends may help communities assess regional antibiotic use and evaluate the effects of local educational measures promoting the judicious use of phd thesis antibiotics. As this study did not span multiple years, we could not document the ability of spirtual essays antibiograms to detect trends. Revolution. However, given that sentinel surveillance conducted in ABCs sites has been shown to short detect pneumococcal resistance trends over time ( 19 ) and high that in our study antibiograms provided site-specific point estimates of antibiotic resistance similar to those measured by active sruveillance, antibiograms may be able to follow trends in pneumococcal antimicrobial resistance at the local level. Drawbacks to this surveillance method include the inability to evaluate resistance to multiple drugs. Relatively few drugs can be evaluated because of short laboratory variations in antibiotics selected for susceptibility testing by antibiograms. Health departments that wish to monitor emerging resistance patterns to antibiotics, such as vancomycin or fluoroquinolones, might consider a method other than aggregated susceptibility tables, or they might encourage hospital laboratories within a defined community to standardize their susceptibility panels to facilitate aggregation of results. Another limitation of antibiograms is the on accounting, inability to distinguish between intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin; 77% of short antibiograms in cultures essay our study expressed resistance as percent nonsusceptible rather than distinguishing between intermediate and resistant isolates. This distinction has become relevant for essays treatment of some infections. For example, NCCLS guidelines recommend different breakpoints by syndrome (meningitis vs. nonmeningitis) for some agents ( 20 ). Aggregating antibiograms is useful for infections that are generally community-acquired, but antimicrobial resistance in hospital-acquired infections should be evaluated based on compare contrast, the knowledge of the particular institution’s flora.

Finally, not all hospitals’ laboratories generate antibiograms or generate them in essays a manner facilitating aggregation across laboratories. However, we demonstrated the comparability of the two surveillance methods despite the contrast, fact that the penicillin-nonsusceptibility results, as measured by antibiograms, was known for only 96 (48%) of the short essays, 199 ABCs hospital laboratories. This study should help clinicians and public health personnel in state or local health departments determine which surveillance tool for obtaining estimates of antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae is best suited to their specific region or community by providing background information on two alternative systems; the benefits and limitations of each system may be reviewed to determine the paper, most useful and practical surveillance tool for a particular region. Antibiograms are relatively inexpensive and easy to use. Although not measured in our study, epidemiologists in Oregon found that the cost of active surveillance was approximately 70 times that of aggregating antibiograms for the three-county study area ( 11 ); the high cost of this type of surveillance, however, is partially due to spirtual the fact that ABCs is an integrated system that accomplishes multiple objectives in addition to stock susceptibility testing of pneumococcal isolates ( 12 ). Spirtual. Most hospitals and laboratories routinely generate antibiograms; therefore, obtaining this information is relatively easy and within the capacity of psychology personal local health departments. Active surveillance, on the other hand, excludes duplicate isolates for a single patient or infection and is able to provide extensive additional information such as risk factors for resistant infections, outcome data, and other laboratory testing such as serotype determination. Active surveillance also limits case and isolate collection to persons who are residents of the defined surveillance area, allowing for calculation of rates of disease. Furthermore, active surveillance provides individual patient-level data, allowing assessment of the impact of specific interventions such as pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants and young children. Attainment of essays patient-level data through active surveillance also permits detection of possible changes in essay scientific the incidence of resistant pneumococcal infections (e.g., because of a general decrease in cases of pneumococcal infection among children receiving pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) that might go unnoticed if only the proportion of resistant isolates were tracked (i.e., as done by antibiograms). Increasing antibiotic drug resistance is a problem that is global in scale and that has practical implications for the treatment and spirtual essays outcome of invasive infections from high scholarship S. pneumoniae and other bacteria of public health importance.

Clinicians and researchers are now acknowledging the importance of preventing resistant infections through appropriate use of antibiotics and vaccines. Surveillance data are needed to monitor the success of these campaigns and to raise awareness of the problem. Because most local laboratories generate antibiograms routinely, collecting aggregating antibiogram data is an inexpensive and essays readily available method of measuring local antibiotic resistance levels. Although providing less information than active surveillance, aggregated antibiogram data are a generally accurate way for health departments to generate needed community-specific estimates of pneumococcal resistance. Dr. Van Beneden is a medical epidemiologist in the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and psychology statement Prevention. Her research interests include public health surveillance systems for spirtual short community-acquired bacterial infections, antimicrobial resistance among streptococci, study of vaccines against pneumococcal disease, and a dream holiday group A streptococcal disease. We thank the surveillance officers, clinical microbiologists, laboratory directors, and managers working in ABCs sites for contributing data for this study and Paul Cieslak, Richard Besser, and Anne Schuchat for their helpful and insightful comments on spirtual short, the manuscript. Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address: Chris Van Beneden, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Mailstop D65, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; fax: 404-371-5445.

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Spirituality Essay - 663 Words | Bartleby

Learning to Read and Write: What Research Reveals. Children learn to use symbols, combining their oral language, pictures, print, and play into a coherent mixed medium and creating and short essays communicating meanings in a dream essay a variety of ways. Spirtual Short Essays! From their initial experiences and interactions with adults, children begin to read words, processing letter-sound relations and acquiring substantial knowledge of the alphabetic system. As they continue to learn, children increasingly consolidate this information into patterns that allow for automaticity and fluency in reading and writing. Consequently reading and writing acquisition is conceptualized better as a developmental continuum than as an all-or-nothing phenomenon. But the ability to read and write does not develop naturally, without careful planning and instruction.

Children need regular and active interactions with print. Specific abilities required for reading and writing come from immediate experiences with oral and prices written language. Experiences in these early years begin to define the short, assumptions and cultures essay expectations about becoming literate and spirtual short give children the essay, motivation to short work toward learning to read and write. Compare! From these experiences children learn that reading and writing are valuable tools that will help them do many things in life. The beginning years (birth through preschool) Even in the first few months of life, children begin to experiment with language. Young babies make sounds that imitate the tones and rhythms of adult talk; they read gestures and facial expressions, and they begin to associate sound sequences frequently heard #150; words #150; with their referents (Berk 1996).

They delight in listening to familiar jingles and rhymes, play along in games such as peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake, and manipulate objects such as board books and alphabet blocks in their play. From these remarkable beginnings children learn to use a variety of symbols. In the midst of gaining facility with these symbol systems, children acquire through interactions with others the insight that specific kinds of marks #150; print #150; also can represent meanings. Spirtual Short! At first children will use the physical and essay revolution visual cues surrounding print to determine what something says. But as they develop an understanding of the alphabetic principle, children begin to process letters, translate them into sounds, and connect this information with a known meaning. Although it may seem as though some children acquire these understandings magically or on spirtual their own, studies suggest that they are the beneficiaries of considerable, though playful and informal, adult guidance and instruction (Durkin 1966; Anbar 1986).

What this means is that no one teaching method or approach is likely to be the most effective for all children (Strickland 1994). Rather, good teachers bring into play a variety of teaching strategies that can encompass the great diversity of scientific revolution children in schools. Short! Excellent instruction builds on what children already know, and can do, and essay high scholarship provides knowledge, skills, and dispositions for lifelong learning. Spirtual Essays! Children need to on accounting learn not only the spirtual essays, technical skills of reading and writing but also how to use these tools to better their thinking and reasoning (Neuman 1998). The single most important activity for building these understandings and skills essential for reading success appears to be reading aloud to children (Wells 1985; Bus, Van Ijzendoorn, Pellegrini 1995). Contrast! High-quality book reading occurs when children feel emotionally secure (Bus Van Ijzendoorn 1995; Bus et al. 1997) and are active participants in reading (Whitehurst et al. 1994). Asking predictive and essays analytic questions in small-group settings appears to affect children's vocabulary and comprehension of stories (Karweit Wasik 1996). Research Prices! Children may talk about the pictures, retell the story, discuss their favorite actions, and request multiple rereadings. It is the talk that surrounds the storybook reading that gives it power, helping children to spirtual essays bridge what is in the story and their own lives (Dickinson Smith 1994; Snow et al.

1995). Snow (1991) has described these types of conversations as decontextualized language in which teachers may induce higher-level thinking by moving experiences in personal statement stories from what the essays, children may see in paper prices front of them to what they can imagine. Children also need opportunity to practice what they've learned about print with their peers and on their own. Studies suggest that the physical arrangement of the classroom can promote time with books (Morrow Weinstein 1986; Neuman Roskos 1997). A key area is the classroom library #150; a collection of attractive stories and short essays informational books that provides children with immediate access to books. Regular visits to the school or public library and library card registration ensure that children's collections remain continually updated and may help children develop the phd thesis on accounting, habit of reading as lifelong learning.

In comfortable library settings children often will pretend to read, using visual cues to spirtual remember the words of their favorite stories. Essay Revolution! Although studies have shown that these pretend readings are just that (Ehri Sweet 1991), such visual readings may demonstrate substantial knowledge about the essays, global features of reading and its purposes. Storybooks are not the psychology personal statement introduction, only means of providing children with exposure to written language. Children learn a lot about reading from the labels, signs, and spirtual other kinds of print they see around them (McGee, Lomax, Head 1988; Neuman Roskos 1993). Highly visible print labels on objects, signs, and bulletin boards in classrooms demonstrate the practical uses of written language. In environments rich with print, children incorporate literacy into their dramatic play (Morrow 1990; Vukelich 1994; Neuman Roskos 1997), using these communication tools to enhance the drama and realism of the pretend situation. These everyday, playful experiences by themselves do not make most children readers. Rather they expose children to a variety of print experiences and the processes of reading for real purposes.

For children whose primary language is essay scientific other than English, studies have shown that a strong basis in a first language promotes school achievement in a second language (Cummins 1979). Children who are learning English as a second language are more likely to become readers and writers of English when they are already familiar with the spirtual, vocabulary and essay concepts in their primary language. Spirtual Essays! In this respect, oral and written language experiences should be regarded as an additive process, ensuring that children are able to holiday essay maintain their home language while also learning to spirtual short speak and read English (Wong Fillmore, 1991). Including non-English materials and resources to the extent possible can help to support children's first language while children acquire oral proficiency in English. A fundamental insight developed in essay high children's early years through instruction is the alphabetic principle, the understanding that there is a systematic relationship between letters and sounds (Adams 1990). The research of Gibson and Levin (1975) indicates that the shapes of letters are learned by distinguishing one character from spirtual short essays, another by its type of spatial features.

Teachers will often involve children in essay high scholarship school comparing letter shapes, helping them to differentiate a number of spirtual short essays letters visually. Alphabet books and alphabet puzzles in which children can see and compare letters may be a key to efficient and easy learning. At the same time children learn about the sounds of language through exposure to linguistic awareness games, nursery rhymes, and rhythmic activities. Paper Prices! Some research suggests that the essays, roots of phonemic awareness, a powerful predictor of later reading success, are found in traditional rhyming, skipping, and word games (Bryant et al. 1990). In one study, for example (Maclean, Bryant, Bradley 1987), researchers found that three-year-old children's knowledge of nursery rhymes specifically related to their more abstract phonological knowledge later on. Engaging children in choral readings of rhymes and psychology rhythms allows them to associate the symbols with the sounds they hear in these words.

Although children's facility in phonemic awareness has been shown to be strongly related to later reading achievement, the precise role it plays in these early years is not fully understood. Phonemic awareness refers to essays a child's understanding and conscious awareness that speech is composed of identifiable units, such as spoken words, syllables, and sounds. Training studies have demonstrated that phonemic awareness can be taught to children as young as age five (Bradley Bryant 1983; Lundberg, Frost, Petersen 1988; Cunningham 1990; Bryne Fielding-Barnsley 1991). Paper! These studies used tiles (boxes) (Elkonin 1973) and linguistic games to engage children in explicitly manipulating speech segments at the phoneme level. Yet, whether such training is appropriate for younger-age children is highly suspect. Other scholars find that children benefit most from such training only after they have learned some letter names, shapes, and spirtual sounds and research can apply what they learn to real reading in meaningful contexts (Cunningham 1990; Foorman et al.

1991). Even at this later age, however, many children acquire phonemic awareness skills without specific training but as a consequence of learning to short read (Wagner Torgesen 1987; Ehri 1994). In the preschool years sensitizing children to sound similarities does not seem to be strongly dependent on formal training but rather from listening to patterned, predictable texts while enjoying the feel of reading and language. Children acquire a working knowledge of the alphabetic system not only through reading but also through writing. A classic study by Read (1971) found that even without formal spelling instruction, preschoolers use their tacit knowledge of on accounting phonological relations to spell words. Invented spelling (or phonic spelling) refers to beginners' use of the symbols they associate with the sounds they hear in the words they wish to write.

For example, a child may initially write b or bk for the word bike, to be followed by more conventionalized forms later on. Some educators may wonder whether invented spelling promotes poor spelling habits. To the contrary, studies suggest that temporary invented spelling may contribute to beginning reading (Chomsky 1979; Clarke 1988). One study, for example, found that children benefited from spirtual essays, using invented spelling compared to having the teacher provide correct spellings in writing (Clarke 1988). Although children's invented spellings did not comply with correct spellings, the process encouraged them to think actively about letter-sound relations. As children engage in writing, they are learning to segment the words they wish to spell into constituent sounds. Classrooms that provide children with regular opportunities to express themselves on paper, without feeling too constrained for correct spelling and proper handwriting, also help children understand that writing has real purpose (Graves 1983; Sulzby 1985; Dyson 1988). Holiday Essay! Teachers can organize situations that both demonstrate the writing process and get children actively involved in it. Some teachers serve as scribes and help children write down their ideas, keeping in mind the balance between children doing it themselves and asking for help.

In the beginning these products likely emphasize pictures with few attempts at essays writing letters or words. With encouragement, children begin to label their pictures, tell stories, and attempt to write stories about the pictures they have drawn. Such novice writing activity sends the important message that writing is personal statement not just handwriting practice #150; children are using their own words to compose a message to communicate with others. Thus the short, picture that emerges from paper, research in spirtual short these first years of compare contrast essay children's reading and short writing is one that emphasizes wide exposure to print and to developing concepts about it and personal statement its forms and functions. Short Essays! Classrooms filled with print, language and literacy play, storybook reading, and writing allow children to experience the joy and power associated with reading and writing while mastering basic concepts about print that research has shown are strong predictors of achievement. Knowledge of the forms and functions of print serves as a foundation from scientific revolution, which children become increasingly sensitive to letter shapes, names, sounds, and words. Spirtual Short! However, not all children typically come to kindergarten with similar levels of knowledge about printed language. Phd Thesis! Estimating where each child is developmentally and spirtual essays building on that base, a key feature of all good teaching, is particularly important for the kindergarten teacher. Instruction will need to be adapted to account for children's differences. For those children with lots of print experiences, instruction will extend their knowledge as they learn more about the formal features of letters and their sound correspondences. For other children with fewer prior experiences, initiating them to the alphabetic principle, that a limited set of contrast cultures essay letters comprises the alphabet and spirtual that these letters stand for on accounting the sounds that make up spoken words, will require more focused and direct instruction.

In all cases, however, children need to interact with a rich variety of print (Morrow, Strickland, Woo 1998). In this critical year kindergarten teachers need to capitalize on every opportunity for enhancing children's vocabulary development. One approach is through listening to stories (Feitelson, Kita, Goldstein 1986; Elley 1989). Spirtual Essays! Children need to paper prices be exposed to vocabulary from a wide variety of genres, including informational texts as well as narratives. The learning of vocabulary, however, is not necessarily simply a byproduct of reading stories (Leung Pikulski 1990).

Some explanation of vocabulary words prior to listening to a story is related significantly to children's learning of new words (Elley 1989). Short! Dickinson and Smith (1994), for example, found that asking predictive and analytic questions before and after the readings produced positive effects on vocabulary and a dream holiday essay comprehension. Repeated readings appear to further reinforce the essays, language of the text as well as to familiarize children with the way different genres are structured (Eller, Pappas, Brown 1988; Morrow 1988). Understanding the forms of informational and narrative texts seems to distinguish those children who have been well read to from those who have not (Pappas 1991). In one study, for example, Pappas found that with multiple exposures to a story (three readings), children's retelling became increasingly rich, integrating what they knew about the world, the a dream holiday essay, language of the spirtual, book, and the message of the author. Thus, considering the benefits for vocabulary development and comprehension, the case is strong for scientific revolution interactive storybook reading (Anderson 1995). Spirtual Short! Increasing the volume of children's playful, stimulating experiences with good books is associated with accelerated growth in reading competence. Activities that help children clarify the concept of word are also worthy of time and attention in the kindergarten curriculum (Juel 1991).

Language experience charts that let teachers demonstrate how talk can be written down provide a natural medium for children's developing word awareness in meaningful contexts. Transposing children's spoken words into written symbols through dictation provides a concrete demonstration that strings of letters between spaces are words and that not all words are the same length. Studies by Clay (1979) and Bissex (1980) confirm the value of what many teachers have known and done for years: Teacher dictations of children's stories help develop word awareness, spelling, and the conventions of scholarship school written language. Many children enter kindergarten with at least some perfunctory knowledge of the alphabet letters. An important goal for the kindergarten teacher is to reinforce this skill by ensuring that children can recognize and discriminate these letter shapes with increasing ease and fluency (Mason 1980; Snow, Burns, Griffin 1998). Children's proficiency in letter naming is a well-established predictor of their end-of-year achievement (Bond Dykstra 1967, Riley 1996), probably because it mediates the spirtual short, ability to remember sounds.

Generally a good rule according to current learning theory (Adams 1990) is to start with the more easily visualized uppercase letters, to be followed by identifying lowercase letters. In each case, introducing just a few letters at a time, rather than many, enhances mastery. At about the essay scientific revolution, time children are readily able to identify letter names, they begin to connect the spirtual short, letters with the sounds they hear. A fundamental insight in this phase of learning is that a letter and a dream essay letter sequences map onto phonological forms. Phonemic awareness, however, is not merely a solitary insight or an instant ability (Juel 1991). It takes time and spirtual practice. Children who are phonemically aware can think about and manipulate sounds in words. They know when words rhyme or do not; they know when words begin or end with the same sound; and on accounting they know that a word like bat is composed of three sounds /b/ /a/ /t/ and that these sounds can be blended into a spoken word.

Popular rhyming books, for example, may draw children's attention to rhyming patterns, serving as a basis for spirtual essays extending vocabulary (Ehri Robbins 1992). Using initial letter cues, children can learn many new words through analogy, taking the familiar word bake as a strategy for phd thesis figuring out a new word, lake. Further, as teachers engage children in shared writing, they can pause before writing a word, say it slowly, and stretch out the sounds as they write it. Spirtual Essays! Such activities in the context of real reading and writing help children attend to the features of print and contrast essay the alphabetic nature of English. There is accumulated evidence that instructing children in phonemic awareness activities in kindergarten (and first grade) enhances reading achievement (Stanovich 1986; Lundberg, Frost, Petersen 1988; Bryne Fielding-Barnsley 1991, 1993, 1995). Although a large number of children will acquire phonemic awareness skills as they learn to read, an estimated 20% will not without additional training. A statement by the IRA (1998) indicates that the likelihood of these students becoming successful as readers is spirtual short slim to none#133; This figure [20%], however, can be substantially reduced through more systematic attention to engagement with language early on in the child's home, preschool and kindergarten classes. A study by compare contrast Hanson and Farrell (1995), for example, examined the long-term benefits of a carefully developed kindergarten curriculum that focused on word study and decoding skills, along with sets of stories so that children would be able to practice these skills in essays meaningful contexts. High school seniors who early on had received this type of phd thesis on accounting instruction outperformed their counterparts on reading achievement, attitude toward schooling, grades, and attendance. In kindergarten many children will begin to read some words through recognition or by processing letter-sound relations. Short Essays! Studies by compare contrast Domico (1993) and Richgels (1995) suggest that children's ability to read words is tied to their ability to spirtual short essays write words in a somewhat reciprocal relationship.

The more opportunities children have to write, the greater the likelihood that they will reproduce spellings of words they have seen and a dream essay heard. Though not conventional, these spellings likely show greater letter-sound correspondences and partial encoding of some parts of spirtual short words, like SWM for swim, than do the inventions of preschoolers (Clay 1975). To provide more intensive and extensive practice, some teachers try to integrate writing in revolution other areas of the curriculum, like literacy-related play (Neuman Roskos 1992), and other project activities (Katz Chard 1989). These types of projects engage children in using reading and writing for multiple purposes while they are learning about short topics meaningful to a dream them. Early literacy activities teach children a great deal about writing and reading but often in essays ways that do not look much like traditional elementary school instruction. Capitalizing on the active and social nature of children's learning, early instruction must provide rich demonstrations, interactions, and models of literacy in the course of activities that make sense to young children. Children must also learn about the relation between oral and written language and the relation between letters, sounds, and words. A Dream! In classrooms built around a wide variety of print activities, then in talking, reading, writing, playing, and listening to one another, children will want to read and write and feel capable that they can do so. Instruction takes on a more formal nature as children move into the elementary grades. Here it is virtually certain that children will receive at least some instruction from a commercially published product, like a basal or literature anthology series.

Although research has clearly established that no one method is superior for all children (Bond Dykstra 1967; Snow, Burns, Griffin 1998), approaches that favor some type of systematic code instruction along with meaningful connected reading report children's superior progress in reading. Instruction should aim to teach the important letter-sound relationships, which once learned are practiced through having many opportunities to read. Most likely these research findings are a positive result of the Matthew Effect, the rich-get-richer effects that are embedded in such instruction; that is, children who acquire alphabetic coding skills begin to recognize many words (Stanovich 1986). As word recognition processes become more automatic, children are likely to allocate more attention to higher-level processes of comprehension. Since these reading experiences tend to be rewarding for children, they may read more often; thus reading achievement may be a by-product of reading enjoyment. Children not only use their increasing knowledge of letter-sound patterns to read unfamiliar texts. They also use a variety of strategies.

Studies reveal that early readers are capable of being intentional in their use of spirtual short metacognitive strategies (Brown, DeLoache 1978; Rowe 1994) Even in these early grades, children make predictions about what they are to read, self-correct, reread, and research paper stock question if necessary, giving evidence that they are able to short adjust their reading when understanding breaks down. Teacher practices, such as the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA), effectively model these strategies by helping children set purposes for reading, ask questions, and summarize ideas through the text (Stauffer 1970). But children also need time for independent practice. These activities may take on numerous forms. Essay! Some research, for example, has demonstrated the powerful effects that children's reading to their caregivers has on promoting confidence as well as reading proficiency (Hannon 1995). Visiting the library and scheduling independent reading and writing periods in short essays literacy-rich classrooms also provide children with opportunities to select books of their own choosing.

They may engage in the social activities of a dream essay reading with their peers, asking questions, and writing stories (Morrow Weinstein 1986), all of spirtual short essays which may nurture interest and revolution appreciation for spirtual short reading and writing. Supportive relationships between these communication processes lead many teachers to integrate reading and writing in classroom instruction (Tierney Shanahan 1991). After all, writing challenges children to essay revolution actively think about print. Short! As young authors struggle to express themselves, they come to grips with different written forms, syntactic patterns, and themes. Revolution! They use writing for spirtual essays multiple purposes: to stock prices write descriptions, lists, and stories to communicate with others. It is essays important for teachers to expose children to psychology a range of text forms, including stories, reports, and informational texts, and to help children select vocabulary and spirtual punctuate simple sentences that meet the demands of audience and research paper prices purpose. Since handwriting instruction helps children communicate effectively, it should also be part of the writing process (McGee Richgels 1996). Short lessons demonstrating certain letter formations tied to essays the publication of compare contrast writing provide an ideal time for instruction.

Reading and writing workshops, in which teachers provide small-group and individual instruction, may help children to short essays develop the skills they need for communicating with others. Although children's initial writing drafts will contain invented spellings, learning about spelling will take on increasing importance in these years (Henderson Beers 1980; Richgels 1986). Spelling instruction should be an important component of the personal statement introduction, reading and writing program since it directly affects reading ability. Some teachers create their own spelling lists, focusing on words with common patterns, high-frequency words, as well as some personally meaningful words from the children's writing. Research indicates that seeing a word in spirtual short print, imagining how it is spelled, and copying new words is an effective way of acquiring spellings (Barron 1980). Nevertheless, even though the teacher's goal is to foster more conventionalized forms, it is important to recognize that there is more to writing than just spelling and grammatically correct sentences. Rather, writing has been characterized by Applebee (1977) as thinking with a pencil. It is true that children will need adult help to master the complexities of the writing process. But they also will need to learn that the power of research stock prices writing is expressing one's own ideas in ways that can be understood by others.

As children's capabilities develop and become more fluent, instruction will turn from spirtual short, a central focus on helping children learn to read and write to helping them read and write to learn. Increasingly the emphasis for teachers will be on encouraging children to become independent and productive readers, helping them to extend their reasoning and comprehension abilities in learning about their world. Teachers will need to essay provide challenging materials that require children to analyze and think creatively and spirtual short from different points of psychology personal statement view. Spirtual! They also will need to ensure that children have practice in phd thesis reading and writing (both in and out of spirtual essays school) and many opportunities to analyze topics, generate questions, and organize written responses for different purposes in meaningful activities. Throughout these critical years accurate assessment of children's knowledge, skills, and essay scientific revolution dispositions in reading and writing will help teachers better match instruction with how and spirtual short what children are learning.

However, early reading and writing cannot simply be measured as a set of narrowly-defined skills on standardized tests. These measures often are not reliable or valid indicators of what children can do in revolution typical practice, nor are they sensitive to spirtual short essays language variation, culture, or the essay high school, experiences of young children (Shepard Smith 1988; Shepard 1994; Johnston 1997). Rather, a sound assessment should be anchored in spirtual short real-life writing and reading tasks and essay high scholarship continuously chronicle a wide range of children's literacy activities in different situations. Good assessment is essential to help teachers tailor appropriate instruction to spirtual essays young children and to know when and research paper stock prices how much intensive instruction on any particular skill or strategy might be needed. By the spirtual, end of third grade, children will still have much to learn about literacy. Clearly some will be further along the path to independent reading and writing than others. Phd Thesis On Accounting! Yet with high-quality instruction, the majority of children will be able to decode words with a fair degree of spirtual facility, use a variety of strategies to adapt to different types of text, and be able to communicate effectively for multiple purposes using conventionalized spelling and punctuation. Most of all they will have come to see themselves as capable readers and writers, having mastered the complex set of attitudes, expectations, behaviors, and skills related to written language. Very useful and psychology statement infirmative article. Thanks! Submitted by essays Anonymous (not verified) on April 4, 2012 - 7:05am.

I am loving on how this works for parents and for kids. Submitted by holiday Anonymous (not verified) on September 27, 2013 - 3:31pm. I believe that children also need time for independent practice. Children also learn better when they are doing a one on spirtual short essays one learning. I believe that every teacher should know their student strength and weakness when it comes to there education. Children should not only practice at school they should also take the time to study at home as well. Teachers also can get student attention by letting them read out loud to build there confident. Submitted by Angelica (not verified) on July 31, 2016 - 9:57pm.

Find the best apps for building literacy skills. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is on accounting having and discover ways to help. What parents, teachers and child care providers need to know. Watch or listen to our classroom video, author interviews and essays more. Real questions from parents and educators, answered by experts.

Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to read and read better. Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and research other educators in spirtual essays helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and phd thesis comprehension skills. Copyright © 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Research-based teaching strategies. From print awareness to comprehension. K-3 professional development course. Writing samples from real kids pre-K3. More in Teaching Reading:

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Resume templates: EXPLAINING STEP BY STEP. Here we go into detail. With our step-by-step guide to find out exactly what you need to look for in the various points of your resume. Simple in pattern click on the links below in the right column and gradually build your own resume perfect. I wish you success. University of Mannheim.

– Focus Management Economics. – specializing in spirtual e-commerce Thesis: “Cost-saving effects of CRM systems in telecommunications companies with a size of more than 1,000 employees” (note 1.0) Claus von Stauffenberg School. case study on introducing a Customer Relationship Management system (CRM) in a company in the metalworking industry. programming a PC host interface with C ++ case study on compare contrast the introduction of a document management (12 weeks) Institute of short, Project Management, Stuttgart. Published in: books for holiday essay academic work No. 8/2013, S.21-25. Free Resume templates and short Basic information and thoughts to essay, resume. The curriculum is an integral part of an short essays, application.

As a rule, includes these two pages – in students may already be sufficient page. Through the a dream holiday essay resume to a hiring manager can quickly get a first impression of a candidate. Moreover, he can this document refer to important information, which will enable him to spirtual, match the requirements of a post to be filled with the profile of the candidate. In order for all this to scholarship school, happen to the satisfaction of the personnel in charge, a clear structure, and clearly structured information is an important point that a candidate should be considered when writing a resume. In addition, it is advisable if possible to focus only the important information and to spirtual short essays, dispense with the indication of unimportant and irrelevant to the job data. Thus, the applicant profile can be sharpened to a, on the other hand, a clean focus help ensure that relevant information is not read. These data / content should be found in your resume.

In a resume are usually first the personal data of an applicant to find. Compare Contrast. These data are clearly presented and structured in the space provided. The personal information should generally include the following information (see CV form on this page.): Full address phone number E-mail address Date of birth and essays place of contrast essay, birth Marital status Nationality (only if this can not be derived) In addition, this area of the document can be provided with a matching photo. On the “Personal Information” is spirtual essays, followed (if it already exists) the career path of a candidate.In this area the previous work stations of a candidate are listed.

The anti chronological order allows the reader easily to remove the current or the last professional position of the applicant. Essay Scientific Revolution. The indication of the respective data is short essays, carried out in a rule as shown below (see CV form on this page.): date Job Title Company / Organization with place optionally industry and research paper stock prices number of spirtual, employees 3-5 activity provided (if possible, the selection of these activities should be geared to the requirements of the new location) Each professional station gets this such a block within the CV. The career follows the section with information about the training. This is compare contrast essay, reported in accordance with the short essays professional positions with date, training or academic title, company / organization / school / college and training content. For a continuous representation of the data with respect to the formation should be presented anti chronologically.

Below are some key points to this block (see CV form on this page.): date Name of training Company / Organization / School / College with place optionally industry and contrast cultures number of employees where appropriate training content possibly final grade and subject of the thesis. To highlight completed training, but a separate area can be created. Alternatively, these measures may be placed “training” in the field. The training provided should not be too far back and be relevant to short essays, the desired location, if possible beyond. then the a dream next block form the “Special skills” of a candidate. Spirtual. This area offers the phd thesis on accounting opportunity to make the recruiters on additional knowledge attention, which in spirtual essays turn are best if relevant for the intended location. Behind the high scholarship “Special skills” to spirtual essays, hide information about computer skills or computer skills, language skills, driving license and essay revolution other skills that are of relevance.Additionally, it should be done for all knowledge, either a self-assessment or proof of the level of knowledge. For examples relating to spirtual short, the presentation of such knowledge see the CV form on this page. In conclusion, even an area with interests and personal introduction hobbies are inserted.

This area should, however, take up little space in spirtual essays your resume, because although it may round the psychology personal first image of a candidate, but should not get too much focus. The most important information of the applicant are in the overlying or preceding sections. Spirtual Short. When specifying hobbies and interests should be taken to ensure that the mentioned pastimes no negative concerns about the future performance of an employee wake (eg, extreme sports with a high risk of injury - This might fear the research stock recruiter that the short candidate could turn out often). In conclusion then follows the signature. This gives the scientific document nor a personal touch and is also often seen as assurance that the information supplied by short the applicant are correct.

Frequently asked questions about CV. Below you will find frequently asked questions and answers about the CV. Where the CV is placed in the application folder? At what point of the resume is on research paper stock prices the order of the application documents? In classical Bewerbungsmappe the CV is spirtual, arranged directly after the cover letter. If a cover sheet is used, it usually follows the cover letter – the CV is then added directly to the cover page in the application folder. If the application via e-mail, so the resume is usually queued immediately after the cover letter in the application document. The application cover sheet (if present) is then usually in the first place, even before the letter. To create a resume, you can use, for example, the above templates and patterns as a basis.In order to work with a CV template of your choice, you need Microsoft Word from Word 2007. Alternatively, you can also use word processing programs such as OpenOffice or LibreOffice for creating your resume.

However, please note that when using our templates in combination with the two programs latter can serious compatibility issues. A curriculum vitae is a dream holiday, a tabular representation of your personal history. Earlier on this page you will find several examples and your CV. What should I consider when choosing a resume template? When choosing a resume template, it is short essays, advisable to essay scholarship school, check the spirtual short filters: Suitable to the layout of the template for the substantive scope of my career and its representation? Fits the original optically to the job, the scholarship company and spirtual short essays the industry? Fits the bill to holiday essay, my personality?

Should a CV template not 100% satisfied with your, so you can use it as a basis and adjust them to your needs. The above CV format for Word, you can use Word to edit from 2007 onwards. Both a content adaptation, as well as an adaptation of the spirtual essays design / layout is possible. In a (tabular) CV is a compressed and focused presentation of your previous career.Important information should already be clear as possible when flying over the life course for the reader. Data are for a point of no relevance, should either be omitted, or be represented if necessary as short and concise. Use at the individual stations in your resume if possible bullet points to present your relevant for essay the job qualifications and skills clearly and structured. A resume should not exceed two A4 pages as a rule. Spirtual Short. Depending on the length of the paper stock previous career may be sufficient an spirtual essays, A4 page. At what point should I start on your CV? How far should I go back in chronological resume? In most cases, you can start on your resume from the secondary school.

A visit to an elementary school, all applicants in common, so that this station does not matter for filling positions. Chronological or reverse chronological CV – what order is suitable for the resume? As a rule, an anti-chronological, chronologically decreasing order for essay revolution the CV is well suited.This is for short essays the reader the latest (and therefore often the most relevant) information easy to essay scholarship, find. Why should my resume be consecutive? Gaps in your CV often raise questions and to the reader with the feeling that the candidate is trying to hide something. To get around this, a resume should therefore be possible without gaps. What can I write in CV unemployment rather than “unemployed”? active formulations are better suited than their passive counterparts for short essays the CV. Instead of the passive phrase “unemployed” you could use “seeking work” on your resume therefore active formulations such as.

My resume is too long – I can leave? To shorten your resume you can cut, for example, information on qualifications or skills that are not or only of limited relevance for the intended position, or optionally omit. If it is professional or educational stations, so you should indeed retain in any case – otherwise gaps would arise – but the scientific possibility to reduce the number of bullet points or even completely dispense with bullet points. Spirtual Short Essays. The sections “knowledge” and phd thesis on accounting “interests” are, usually best to cut the CV. What font and size suitable for your resume? legible font with a serious effect are for the CV, as well as for all other application documents suitable. Examples of such fonts, for example Arial, Times New Roman, Open Sans, Verdana or Garamond. Sizes between 10pt and 12pt are in terms of spirtual short, font size, depending on the selected font, usually suitable. For headings can optionally also a larger font size to essay high school, be useful, if this is just for clarity. Generally it should be ensured that uniform fonts and font sizes are used in spirtual essays all application documents.

How can I write my resume? Where the CV is signed? The curriculum will be signed at the end. Depending on the visual preference either two blank lines may be added in the CV after the last station for the signature. This is followed by the place and date, as well as a handwritten signature. Alternatively, place and date left justified and the handwritten signature may be positioned flush right after the a dream holiday essay last station of the resume. For the signature a suitable writing tool (eg. Spirtual Short Essays. Fillers in blue ink) is recommended.

If the resume submitted online, so you can sign on a white sheet of paper and then scan your signature. Where can I mention my driver’s license in your CV? Your driver’s license, you can specify within the section “Special skills” with the appropriate license categories. The photo is psychology personal statement introduction, usually placed right-justified in the curriculum vitae within the spirtual essays section “Personal data”. If a cover page is used with photo, can be dispensed with in the resume on a photo. What file format should I use for my resume? The CV should always be sent as a PDF file. Essay. This file format has the advantage that it can not be readily changed. How can I save my resume as a PDF file and send it?

Your resume example, you can save directly into Word as a PDF file. To do this, simply change the file type in the “Save As” dialog on “PDF”. Please make sure that your resume previously as editable Word file (eg. “.docx”) Save to edit it again at spirtual a later date. You can then send your resume as an statement, email attachment, or via file upload in an online application portal. Errors in your resume: where the pitfalls lie. If you apply the spirtual short essays letter is devoted the a dream essay most attention and spirtual essays energy. The curriculum is however in many cases quickly and according to the book checked. A mistake, because the devil is in the detail and the resume is revolution, more important, as many candidates is clear.

Too little concrete information on the recent activities Missing evidence cited activities Gaps in spirtual short your CV Unrealistic-perceived language skills Improper Hobbies. Exaggerated clear layout customization Excessive distortion of her own style Too much text and tags on individual stations To elaborate layout suffered by the clarity Stilbruch between letter and resume Outdated application photo. Clear answer: No Fake degrees, academic titles purchased or never graduated workstations are not peccadilloes or white lies, but fraud. The can through to forgery rich and always has therefore a veritable ground for dismissal . Even after one has begun the job for a long time. At worst, the essay civil consequences entail. Short. From this type of CV-polish so you should strictly stay away. Against other cosmetic procedures is less objection: Chronic diseases , for example, which have no influence on the job, you do not need to mention. The same applies to a dream essay, successful stays in an addiction clinic . Also you can move through skillful representation in a slightly better light – for example, if your past successes will substantiate by numbers: Do these in absolute form is spirtual short essays, not quite as convincing, then make up percentages or refer to revolution, rankings. Were you in the job not the number 1? Then be stated precisely that you were among the top 5 of the company.

If you are not the short essays absolute leader have worked, use similar comparisons as among the top three companies in the industry . So if you resume templates to use, please make absolutely sure this individualize by skillfully devising and arranging still suit their respective target companies.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and spirtual essays, accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. High. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.

Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of short your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of essay scientific your experience). Spirtual Short Essays. Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to revolution be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only short essays sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Personal Statement. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the short essays, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on contrast, a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and spirtual essays, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is a dream essay, going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading.

So focus on spirtual essays, putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is essay, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. Spirtual Short Essays. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and psychology personal introduction, focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to spirtual organize the information on psychology, your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is spirtual short, listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in essay scholarship your situation, skip the spirtual, skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is personal, this—you want the spirtual, information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is contrast, a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.

If you’re struggling, check out short essays, these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to research paper stock prices fit more in less space. Can’t figure out spirtual, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to phd thesis on accounting include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on essays, that document, and then include a link to a dream holiday your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in spirtual short order to essay scientific revolution stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.

Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of essays Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to psychology introduction the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.

No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. Short. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to personal statement include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on essays, the web, like your LinkedIn profile and holiday essay, Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for short essays prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is compare contrast cultures, arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the spirtual essays, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Essay. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to spirtual essays the one you’re applying to). Research Paper Stock. 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to short pair it with a strong cover letter telling the holiday, narrative of short essays why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in essay revolution a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Essays. You may be tempted to phd thesis on accounting throw in spirtual tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to scholarship school be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is spirtual, readable, relevant, and interesting to scholarship all of spirtual them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by research paper, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by spirtual short essays, hiring you.

If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into contrast accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about spirtual short essays, how you can demonstrate these attributes in essay scientific revolution your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the spirtual, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Essay. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If every bullet in spirtual short essays your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the a dream essay, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and spirtual essays, relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in statement introduction reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is short essays, more specific to the job, list that first to grab the psychology personal statement, reviewer’s attention. Spirtual Short Essays. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the essay, degree than when you earned it. Spirtual. If you graduated from essay, college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to spirtual essays showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Essay. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and essays, motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the compare cultures, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to spirtual skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.

Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of school skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out spirtual essays, one of those sections and phd thesis, listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only spirtual add those that are relevant to the job. Compare Contrast Cultures. Are you a guitar player with your eye on short essays, a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for essay a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Essays. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the holiday, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the spirtual essays, decision of whether to essay scholarship school include them or not. Spirtual Essays. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.

Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the holiday essay, company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in essays an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions.

If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to compare essay each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to spirtual short essays downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for paper prices your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the spirtual short, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at compare contrast, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from spirtual short essays, Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume.

Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the phd thesis on accounting, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on spirtual, your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.

There’s no need to phd thesis address the short, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is essay scientific revolution, free and spirtual short essays, clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on revolution, how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of spirtual short essays HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and compare essay, send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of spirtual short essays “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out a dream holiday, some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of short essays Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the scientific revolution, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Spirtual Essays. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for scientific revolution this class. Essays. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the phd thesis on accounting, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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child computer essay The Alliance for Childhood issued the following statement on September 12, 2000. Computers are reshaping children's lives, at home and at school, in profound and unexpected ways. Common sense suggests that we consider the short, potential harm, as well as the promised benefits, of this change. Computers pose serious health hazards to children. The risks include repetitive stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, social isolation, and, for some, long-term damage to physical, emotional, or intellectual development. Our children, the essay high, Surgeon General warns, are the most sedentary generation ever.

Will they thrive spending even more time staring at screens? Children need stronger personal bonds with caring adults. Yet powerful technologies are distracting children and adults from each other. Children need time for short essays active, physical play; hands-on lessons of all kinds, especially in the arts; and direct experience of the natural world. Research shows these are not frills but are essential for healthy child development. Personal Introduction? Yet many schools have cut already minimal offerings in these areas to shift time and money to expensive, unproven technology. The emphasis on spirtual essays, technology is distracting us from the phd thesis on accounting, urgent social and educational needs of low income children. M.I.T. Spirtual Short Essays? Professor Sherry Turkle has asked: Are we using computer technology not because it teaches best but because we have lost the psychology statement introduction, political will to fund education adequately? Given the essays, high costs and contrast cultures, clear hazards, we call for a moratorium on the further introduction of computers in early childhood and elementary education.

We call for families, schools, and communities to refocus on the essentials of a healthy childhood. And we call for a broad public discussion about these critical issues. Let's examine the claims about computers and children more closely: Do computers really motivate children to learn faster and better? Children must start learning on computers as early as possible, we are told, to get a jump-start on success. Spirtual Short Essays? But 30 years of research on educational technology has produced just one clear link between computers and children's learning. Drill-and-practice programs appear to compare essay, improve scores modestly--though not as much or as cheaply as one-on-one tutoring--on some standardized tests, in narrow skill areas, notes Larry Cuban of Stanford University. Other than that, says Cuban, former president of the American Educational Research Association, there is no clear, commanding body of evidence that students' sustained use of multimedia machines, the Internet, word processing, spreadsheets, and other popular applications has any impact on academic achievement. The sheer power of information technologies may actually hamper young children's intellectual growth.

What is good for adults and older students is often inappropriate for youngsters. Face-to-face conversation with more competent language users, for example, is the spirtual short, one constant factor in a dream studies of how children become expert speakers, readers, and writers. Spirtual Short Essays? Time for real talk with parents and teachers is critical. Similarly, academic success requires focused attention, listening, and persistence. The computer -- like the TV -- can be a mesmerizing babysitter. But many children, overwhelmed by the volume of data and flashy special effects of the World Wide Web and much software, have trouble focusing on any one task. And a new study from the American Association of University Women casts doubt on the claim that computers automatically motivate learning. Stock? Many girls, it found, are bored by computers. And many boys seem more interested in short essays violent video games than educational software. Must five-year-olds be trained on computers today to get the on accounting, high-paying jobs of tomorrow? For a relatively small number of children with certain disabilities, technology offers benefits.

But for the majority, computers pose health hazards and potentially serious developmental problems. Of particular concern is the growing incidence of disabling repetitive stress injuries among college students who began using computers in spirtual childhood. The technology in high school schools today will be obsolete long before five-year-olds graduate. Creativity and imagination are the prerequisites for innovative thinking, which will never be obsolete. Yet a heavy diet of short ready-made computer images and programmed toys appears to stunt imaginative thinking. Teachers report that children in our electronic society are becoming alarmingly deficient in generating their own images and research prices, ideas.

Do computers really connect children to the world? Too often, what computers actually connect children to are trivial games, inappropriate adult material, and aggressive advertising. They can also isolate children, emotionally and physically, from direct experience of the natural world. The distance education they promote is the opposite of what all children, and especially children at risk, need most -- close relationships with caring adults. Research shows that strengthening bonds between teachers, students, and families is a powerful remedy for troubled students and struggling schools. Overemphasizing technology can weaken those bonds. The National Science Board reported in short essays 1998 that prolonged exposure to computing environments may create individuals incapable of dealing with the messiness of reality, the needs of community building, and the demands of personal commitments.

In the early grades, children need live lessons that engage their hands, hearts, bodies, and minds -- not computer simulations. Even in high school, where the benefits of research stock computers are more clear, too few technology classes emphasize the ethics or dangers of online research and communication. Too few help students develop the critical skills to make independent judgments about the potential for the Internet -- or any other technology -- to have negative as well as positive social consequences. Our Conclusion: Those who place their faith in technology to solve the problems of education should look more deeply into the needs of spirtual children. The renewal of education requires personal attention to students from good teachers and active parents, strongly supported by their communities. It requires commitment to developmentally appropriate education and attention to the full range of children's real, low-tech needs -- physical, emotional, and psychology personal statement introduction, social, as well as cognitive. Therefore, we call for:

1: A refocusing in spirtual short education, at home and school, on the essentials of a healthy childhood: strong bonds with caring adults; time for spontaneous, creative play; a curriculum rich in music and the other arts; reading books aloud; storytelling and poetry; rhythm and movement; cooking, building things, and other handcrafts; and gardening and other hands-on experiences of introduction nature and the physical world. 2: A broad public dialogue on how the emphasis on spirtual short, computers affects the real needs of children, especially children in low-income families. 3: A comprehensive report by the U.S. Surgeon General on the full extent of physical, emotional, and other developmental hazards computers pose to children. 4: Full disclosure by information-technology companies about the physical hazards to children of using their products.

5: A halt to psychology personal statement introduction, the commercial hyping of harmful or useless technology for children. 6: A new emphasis on ethics, responsibility, and critical thinking in teaching older students about the personal and social effects of technology. 7: An immediate moratorium on the further introduction of computers in early childhood and elementary education, except for spirtual essays special cases of students with disabilities. Such a time-out is necessary to create the compare contrast cultures, climate for the above recommendations to take place. Signed by: Endorsement of theis statement does not indicate membership in the Alliance for Childhood.

Organizations included for identification purposes only.) Samella Abdullah, Ph.D., M.S.W. , psychotherapist, educator, and consultant in Tallahassee, FL; and spirtual short, former president, the Association of Black Psychologists. Joan Almon , former kindergarten teacher and statement, U.S. coordinator, Alliance for Childhood. Jeffrey Anshel, O.D. Spirtual Short? , Corporate Vision Consulting, and author, Visual Ergonomics in the Workplace. Alison Armstrong , author, The Child and the Machine: How Computers Put Our Children's Education at Risk. Andy Baumbartner , 1999 National Teacher of the Year, 1998 Milken Educator Award winner, and kindergarten teacher, A. Scientific? Brian Merry School, Augusta, GA. Marilyn Benoit, M.D. , child and adolescent psychiatrist, Howard University Hospital, and short, president-elect of the compare contrast cultures, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Benoit's signature, as noted above, does not reflect an endorsement of this statement by spirtual, the Academy.) Margit L. Bleecker, M.D., Ph.D. , neurologist, specialist in repetitive stress injuries, and compare cultures essay, director, Center for Occupational and Environmental Neurology in Baltimore. Chet Bowers , educator and author, Let Them Eat Data: How Computers Affect Education, Cultural Diversity, and the Prospects of Ecological Sustainability , and The Culture of spirtual Denial: Why the research paper stock, Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for essays Reforming Universities and Public Schools.

Hank Bromley, Ph.D. Phd Thesis On Accounting? , associate professor of education and director, Center for the Study of Technology in Education, State University of New York at Buffalo; editor, Education/Technology/Power: Education Computing as a Social Practice. Anita Brown , founder and chair, Black Geeks Online, a nonprofit organization for tech-savvy African Americans, Washington, DC. Dion G. Burn , concerned parent in Richmond, VA, and editor, online educational testing and spirtual short, assessment company. Sandra Campbell , researcher on computers in education, and essay scholarship, the role of the arts and imagination in positive social learning; and educational consultant, Viva Associates, Toronto, Ontario. Fritjof Capra, Ph.D. , physicist and author of The Tao of Physics , and Web of Life. Ian Chunn , program director, Centre for Distance Education, Simon Fraser University. Rhonda Clements, Ed.D. , President, The American Association for the Child's Right to Play, Hempsted, NY. Brendan Connell , student, Harvard University (Mr. Connell developed repetitive stress injuries related to computer use while a student at Blair High School in Montgomery County, MD) Colleen Cordes , writer, co-coordinator of Task Force on Computers in Childhood, Alliance for Childhood. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi , professor of psychology and management and director of the Quality of Life Research Center at Claremont Graduate University, and author, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.

Larry Cuban, Ph.D. , professor of education, Stanford University, and spirtual essays, former president, the American Educational Research Association. O. Fred Donaldson, Ph.D. , play specialist, Moreno Valley Unified School District, Hemet, CA. Hubert L. Dreyfus , professor of essay philosophy, University of California at spirtual short, Berkeley, and author, On the Internet: Nihilism on Line (in press) Elliot Eisner , Lee Jacks professor of education and professor of art at Stanford University; former president of the American Educational Research Association, the National Art Education Association, and the International Society for Education Through Art; and author, The Kind of compare essay Schools We Need. Oscar H. Gandy, Jr., Ph.D. , Herbert I. Schiller professor of communication at spirtual, the Annenberg School for Communication at phd thesis, the University of Pennsylvania. Simson L. Garfinkel , chief technology officer, Sandstorm Enterprises, Inc., and author, Database Nation: The Death of spirtual essays Privacy in the 21st Century.

Claire Ryle Garrison , director, Whole Child Initiative, State of the World Forum, San Francisco, CA. John Taylor Gatto , former New York State Teacher of the Year, and author, Dumbing Us Down , and essay, The Underground History of spirtual American Education: A School Teacher's Intimate Investigation Into the Problem of Modern Schooling (in press) Chellis Glendinning, Ph.D. , psychologist and author, When Technology Wounds. Jane Goodall, Ph.D. , primate researcher and founder, Jane Goodall Institute -- U.K. Joan Dye Gussow, M.S. , Rose Professor Emeritus, Nutrition and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, and author of Chicken Little, Tomato Sauce, and Agriculture: Who Will Produce Tomorrow's Food? Jane Healy, Ph. D. , educational psychologist; former teracher, administrator, and learning specialist; author of Failure to Connect: How Computers Affect Our Children's Minds - for Better and Worse , Endangered Minds , and Your Child's Growing Mind. Harold Howe II , retired educator, former U.S. Commissioner of Education and vice president of Ford Foundation for Education, Harvard education faculty.

Philip Incao, M.D. , primary care physician and founder, Colorado Alliance for Childhood. Henry C. Johnson, Jr., Ph.D. , professor emeritus in education theory and policy, Pennsylvania State University. Jeffrey Kane, Ph.D. , dean, School of holiday essay Education, C.W. Essays? Post Campus, Long Island University, and editor, Education, Information and Transformation: Essays on Learning and paper stock prices, Thinking. Christopher Kendall, M.M. , director, School of Music, University of Maryland; artistic director and conductor, 20/1 Century Consort, new-music ensemble in residence at the Smithsonian Institution; founder and lutenist, Folger Consort in residence at the Folger Shakespeare Library. John Kendall , music educator, internationally recognized authority on violin pedagogy, introducer of the Suzuki Method from spirtual short Japan to the United States; and emeritus professor of violin at Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville. Stephen Kline, Ph.D. , professor in contrast essay the School of Communication, Simon Fraser University, and author, Out of the Garden: Toys, TV, and Children's Culture in the Age of Marketing. Edgar Klugman, Ph.D. , professor emeritus, Wheelock College, and editor of spirtual Play, Policy and phd thesis on accounting, Practice. Robert F. Lathe , Senior Programmer and Information Architecture Specialist, Rapidigm Interactive; formerly, Systems Analyst and Designer, Max Planck Institute for Plasma Research, Munich.

Nancy Leveson, Ph.D. , director of the Software Engineering Research Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and also professor in MIT's Aeronautics and Astronautics Department, formerly professor of computer science at MIT and high-school teacher of spirtual mathematics. Diane Levin, Ph.D. , professor of education, Wheelock College, and author, Remote Control Childhood. Cyril Levitt, Ph.D. , professor of sociology, McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. Susan Linn, Ed.D. , associate director, the Media Center at Judge Baker Children's Center, and instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Joan S. Lipsitz, Ph.D. School? , education consultant, former director of elementary and secondary education for the Lilly Endowment, Inc., founder and director of the essays, Center for Early Adolescence at essay, the University of spirtual short essays North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Jerry Mander , program director, Foundation for Deep Ecology; president, International Forum on Globalization; and phd thesis, author, In the Absence of the Sacred: The Failure of spirtual short essays Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations. Bill McKibben , author of The Age of Missing Information. Deborah W. Meier , principal, Mission Hill School, Boston Public Schools. Edward Miller, Ed.M., educational policy analyst, former editor of the phd thesis on accounting, Harvard Education Letter, and short, co-coordinator, Task Force on Computers in phd thesis Childhood, Alliance for Childhood. Marita Moll , researcher and short, analyst of educational-technology policies, and author, Tech High; Globalization and the Future of Canadian Education. Lowell Monke, Ph.D. Phd Thesis? , former award-winning teacher of advanced technology classes in the Des Moines Public Schools and short essays, former member of Des Moines' Technology Steering Committee, now assistant professor of education, Wittenberg University; co-author, Breaking Down the Digital Walls: Learning to on accounting, Teach in a Post-Modem World (in press)

Thomas Moore, former psychotherapist and author, Care of the Soul: A Guide for Cultivating Depth and short essays, Sacredness in Everyday Life. David Noble, Ph.D., professor of social science, York University, and author, Digital Diploma Mills and The Religion of Technology. Douglas Noble, Ph.D. , senior research associate, SUNY-Geneseo, and author, The Classroom Arsenal: Military Research, Information Technology, and Public Education. David Orr, Ph.D. , chair, Environmental Studies Program at a dream, Oberlin College, and author, Earth in Mind: On Education, Environment and the Human Prospect. Maria Papadakis, Ph.D. , director, Institute for the Social Assessment of Information Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Spirtual? (Dr. Papadakis was the author of Chapter Eight: Economic and Social Significance of Information Technologies, for the U.S.

National Science Board's official biennial report, Science Engineering Indicators -- 1998. Compare Cultures Essay? The chapter summarized the research on the impacts of information technology on K-12 student learning.) Kim John Payne , researcher and educational consultant for short attention-related disorders, and author, The Games Children Play Hadley, MA. Mary Pipher, Ph.D. , psychologist and author, Reviving Ophelia: Saving the school, Selves of Adolescent Girls , and The Shelter of Each Other: Rebuilding Our Families. Neil Postman, Ph.D. , chair, Department of Culture and Communications, New York University, and author, Technopoly, The End of spirtual short essays Education: Redefining the Value of School , and The Disappearance of psychology personal statement introduction Childhood. Alvin F. Poussaint, M.D. , director, the Media Center at Judge Baker Children's Center and clinical professor of spirtual short essays psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.

Deborah Quilter , RSI prevention consultant and author, The Repetitive Strain Injury Recovery Book. Raffi , singer, founder, the Troubadour Institute. Diane Ravitch, Ph.D. , research professor, New York University, and former assistant secretary of education, responsible for the U.S. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Beth Rosenberg , consumer technology journalist, especially on issues involving young children and CD-ROMs. Theodore Roszak, Ph.D. , professor of history, California State University-Hayward, and author of The Cult of Information. Rustum Roy, Ph.D. A Dream Essay? , Evan Pugh professor of the short essays, solid state and director of the Science, Technology, and Society programs, Penn State University. Gary Ruskin, M.P.P. Research Prices? , director, Commercial Alert, Washington, DC. Dorothy St.

Charles , leadership specialist for the Milwaukee Public Schools and former principal. Barry Sanders, Ph.D. , professor of English and history of ideas, Pitzer College and author of A is for Ox: The Collapse of essays Literacy and phd thesis on accounting, the Rise of Violence in an Electronic Age. Richard Sclove, Ph.D., M.S. , founder, The Loka Institute, and author, Democracy and short essays, Technology. David Shenk , author of Data Smog: Surviving the Information Glut ; and The End of Patience: Cautionary Notes on the Information Revolution. David Skrbina, M.S., M.S. Compare Essay? , concerned parent, member of Citizens Technology Advisory Committee for the Northville (MI) schools, and supervisor, Ford Motor Co., advanced technology. Douglas Sloan, Ph.D. , professor of short history and education, Teachers College, Columbia University and editor of psychology introduction The Computer in Education: A Critical Perspective. Ann Speed, Ph.D. , cognitive psychologist, Web-based education and training specialist in Colorado. Clifford Stoll, Ph.D. , astronomer and author, High Tech Heretic and spirtual essays, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage (October, 2000) Stephen Talbott , former software engineer; senior researcher, The Nature Institute; and editor of NetFuture , an online newsletter on technology and human responsibility, Ghent, NY. Betsy Taylor , executive director, Center for a dream holiday a New American Dream. Joanna Redfield Vaughn , art specialist, Austin Independent School District.

Frank Vespe , executive director, TV-Turnoff Network. Bailus Walker, Jr., Ph. Short? D., M.P.H. , professor of scientific revolution environmental and occupational medicine, Howard University College of Medicine; chairman, Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning; former commissioner of public health for Massachusetts; former director of the Occupational Health Standards Division, U.S. Essays? Department of Labor; former president of the American Public Health Association. Joseph Weizenbaum, Ph.D. Research Paper Stock? , professor emeritus of computer science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and author, Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation. Robert Welker, Ph.D. Spirtual Essays? , professor and chair of education, Wittenberg University. Daphne White , founder and director, The Lion and Lamb Project, Tachoma Park, MD. Frank R. Wilson, M..D. , medical director, Health Program for Performing Artists, University of California at San Francisco, and author, The Hand: How It's Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and essay high scholarship school, Human Culture. Carl Wingo , library consultant for technology and bibliographic services, Missouri State Library.

Langdon Winner, Ph.D. , professor of political science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and author, The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology , and Autonomous Technology. Pei-hsuan Wu , lab manager and spirtual short, technology assistant, Saint Mark's School.

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Game of Thrones season 5 episode 6 recap: Didn't scenes at Winterfell make you angry? Do you hear it? Do you hear that sound? The raw, despairing cry of disbelief, pain and abject body horror? It is a primal scream of white hot blinding rage – a noise that best exists in art, a form with no sound. Look to your loved ones, look to your ladies, and hear the short essays grinding of the a dream essay souls wracked by demons in essays, Hieronymous Bosch's The Last Judgement , hear the cries of the innocents bombed by Nazis in Pablo Picasso's Guernica , hear the high school sound of the twisted, groaning face in Edvard Munch's The Scream . Ramsay Bolton must be destroyed. He must be torn limb from limb by blunt needles, each one drawing out a mere fibre of flesh so his skin unravels first, then his muscles, then his organs, veins and arteries before, finally, his bones. It will be a long and bloody process, but eminently satisfying.

It will only end after a starved and rabid rat gnaws off his testicles and he watches his brain being scooped out through his nose with a rusty ice-pick. Other than that, great episode, huh? I don't even know whether it's worth putting in the usual No spoilers, book readers caveat because by spirtual short the Seven I hope George R.R. Martin didn't write that scene and because hopefully the high scholarship school takeaway from my opening gambit this week is that I can get a little angry. You will now receive updates from Entertainment Newsletter. Get the spirtual essays latest news and updates emailed straight to your inbox. By submitting your email you are agreeing to Fairfax Media's terms and conditions and privacy policy . Let's steel our girdles for another instalment of Raven On, the compare only Game of spirtual short essays Thrones recap to have restraining orders taken out against it by characters on paper stock the show. Season 5, episode 6: Unbowed, Unbent, Unbroken aka You Thought the Show Might Be Getting Dull So We Decided to Seriously Mess You Up. In the interests of trying to short essays, provide you with the most comprehensive recap, my beloved Throners, I will endeavour to put aside my INCANDESCENT RAGE at the concluding scene of compare contrast cultures essay this episode for now. We shall all then indulge our RIGHTEOUS ANGER later in the essay.

It's somewhat ironic that the title of short essays episode 6 is the motto of House Martell – because it seemed to feature most characters getting bowed, bent and broken all over the damn place. It was the most game-y Game of Thrones episode for a while, and only the Boltons and Cersei effing Lannister finished with wins. There's Littlefinger too, of course, but he's always played his own game called I Win Everything Always in which only he can win everything, always, so he doesn't really count. Arya is still washing dead bodies in the House of Black and phd thesis, White in Braavos. Short? Frustrated with her lack of research paper progress, she tries to find out more from the short essays older serving girl, the one who beats her and tells her to a dream, get back to work. In what seems like a rare moment of connection, the spirtual short older girl tells Arya that she too was a daughter of a Westerosi lord who poisoned her stepmother with help from the Faceless Men, to whom she is now indentured. But that too is a game, as Arya must guess if it's the truth or a lie.

Jaqen H'ghar then develops this version of Guess Who? , demanding Arya relate to him her life story. He picks up on the Stark girl's little white lies straight away – the idea that her father died in battle (that's a paddling) or that she hated the Hound (that's a paddling). He even objects when she claims she would no longer play his stupid game (you'd better believe that's a paddling). Tsk, tsk, silly girl. Essay Scientific? You can never stop playing the game. This last piece of advice seems to make the brain metronome finally tick in time for essays Arya. In what we soon realise is her big test, a desperate father brings his dying daughter before the Many-Faced God, begging for help to end her suffering.

Arya must comfort the girl, but moreover, the girl must be comforted. And the girl must believe it. Scientific Revolution? Arya cannot tell her own story: there is no comfort there. Essays? But she can lie, boldly, calmly, sensitively, and phd thesis, allow the dying girl some peace. This, it seems, is Arya's first lesson of spirtual life as a Faceless Man: It's not a lie, if you believe it. The House of Black and essay, White is training people how to short essays, be George Costanza. As a reward for her success, Jaqen allows Arya to follow him into on accounting, the mysterious room where they take all the short bodies she washes. This turns out to basically be the Medieval Matrix: a cross between the Wachowskis' futuristic human body farm and compare essay, that scene in Return to Oz where Dorothy meets the many-headed Princess Mombi.

Towers of spirtual short essays faces, kept in some kind of fantasy cryogenic storage, no doubt ready to a dream, be adopted by fully-fledged members of the order. If the Game of Faces is anything like Texas Hold 'Em, or indeed, an short, '80s sitcom, then Arya just scored a full house. The knights and phd thesis, jokers of the pack are represented in this episode by the twin storylines of Jorah and Tyrion in Slavers' Bay, and Jaime and Bronn in Dorne. Having failed to find a village, a new boat or food of any sort, Ser Jorah and essays, his charge are forced to walk to Meereen. Jorah, looking for any distraction from paper stock, that nasty bite of essays greyscale on his forearm, finally asks Tyrion exactly why he came to be knocking about a Volantis knocking shop.

I killed my father, the phd thesis on accounting little lion replies, prompting the first real look of surprise on spirtual essays Jorah's face since he caught Maario leaving Daenerys' chamber pants akimbo (FYI, my porn name is now Pants Akimbo). Tyrion goes on to play a Who Had The Best Dad competition, admiring Ser Jeor Mormont's kindness and care for a dream his charges in the Night's Watch. We shall never see his like again, he reflects. Trouble is, Mormont jnr didn't know Daddy was pushing up daisies north of The Wall – well, as much as any corpse can push up a daisy in sub-zero temperatures. It prompted the short essays first real look of sadness on essay scientific revolution his face since being exiled from Meereen, and short essays, before that since he caught Maario leaving Daenerys' chamber pants akimbo. Pressed by Tyrion to explain why he follows Daenerys, Jorah recalls watching her emerge from the phd thesis fire with her baby dragons all those seasons ago. He had been a hard, cynical man before finding something to genuinely believe in. It's hard to be a cynic after you've heard the singing of spirtual short baby dragons, he explains. Awww.

I feel the same way about my the mewing of my two younger foster kittens, Tormund and revolution, Tarly (I know right? Way cool cat names). Sadly all this chit chat distracts Jorah, allowing slavers from Volantis to snatch the pair. They decide Tyrion is not worth keeping and short, threaten to slit his throat and sell his, um, significant other for its magical properties. Tyrion, the stock prices nine-time Balderdash champion of Casterly Rock, knows how to bluster in a crisis. He convinces the slavers that they must keep him alive to prove his manhood is what they say it is, and more importantly, whets their appetite for cash by spirtual essays suggesting Ser Jorah would be a prime candidate for the reopened Meereen fighting pits. Put a sword in my hand and I'll prove my worth, the crusty old Dothraki-slayer promises. Oooh, goody. Stock? A game of Gladiators, coming our way, with Jorah a convenient chance of running into his lust object/Queen. Meanwhile, I don't know whether to be happy or concerned about the fact the short essays slavers were played by black men. On the one hand, I loved the switch from the compare contrast master/slave relationship from spirtual, our own history.

On the other hand, was it suggesting black guys are baddies? Perhaps The Internet will tell me what my opinion should be. Over in Dorne, Jaime and Bronn are busy re-enacting the famous sand dunes scene from Lawrence of Arabia , riding their horses accompanied by swelling music. In Jaime's case, it's Bronn's out-of-tune rendition of essay The Dornishman's Daughter , which he nastily cuts off before Bronn can get to the good bit (which I thought for sure we'd hear eventually, but we never did). Now, tell me if I'm wrong, Throners, but has this been the first time we've seen a genuine comedy double act in disguise in spirtual short essays, this series? Things almost got a little Carry On Up the paper stock Water Gardens there as Jaime and Bronn, decked out in spirtual short, Dorne Gabbana, snuck in to steal back Myrcella from her good-looking fella, Prince Tristane. The Martell heir and the Lannister princess seem to really dig each other; certainly Jaime has to phd thesis, cough quite loudly to interrupt their macking sesh and ask Myrcella to leave with him immediately.

But Tristane is suspicious, and despite Bronn's warning (Let's not do something stupid), draws his sword (That was something stupid) and is promptly punched in the face. Just then Oberyn's daughters emerge from the vault where they were hiding with Ellaria and attempt to kidnap Myrcella themselves. It's Snakes From a Drain! The girls are obviously keen fighters as they manage to spirtual short essays, avoid being killed by Bronn, who after all, is essay scholarship school insanely freaking effective at spirtual essays, killing people. Jaime too manages a solo-handed effort. He also fights off one of the contrast cultures essay Snakes, heyoooo! As for Myrcella, she just turned to water during the fight scene (Myrcella Water?

That's one for the ladies). Eventually Prince Doran's chief guard Oreo… Orea… Area…Areo shuts it all down, cuffing Jaime and dragging the short essays Snakes away too. If anyone was still searching for Bobby Fischer, look no more. He's wigged up and on accounting, is hiding out in King's Landing under the name of Cersei effing Lannister: Queen Mother, Chess Master. Her power play of making the Sparrows her de facto personal persecution squad has come off perfectly. Slow Lorus is spirtual short essays under investigation and she looks like the injured party, having been betrothed to a so-called pervert, rather than the guilty-as-seven-hells one responsible. Working with the High Sparrow, they perfectly snooker Slow Lorus AND Kate Middleton to boot, by having them both swear before the Seven that rumours about his sexuality are simply lies. But we all knew what was coming, didn't we? We had that growing feeling of dread – and there he was, Slow Lorus' squire/lover, ready to spill the beans. The evidence was enough to lock up both Slow Lorus AND Kate Middleton pending a full trial. Scientific Revolution? The High Sparrow was insistent, and short essays, not even the remonstrations of compare contrast a triumphantly returned Lady Olenna (never leave me again, Diana Rigg) could do anything about it.

She and King Tommen had to sit and watch their loved ones locked up, all while Cersei sat their smug as my old school chums at our reunion. Look, I'm sorry I haven't pumped out short essays, kids, OK, I've had things to do. Do you know what a commitment long form narrative TV drama is these days? Anyway, the whole thing smacks of statement introduction a plot to spirtual short, deny us Slow Lorus nudey romp scenes. Surely they wouldn't dare. Those are the stuff that dreams are made of. Let's head to high school, Winterfell. It's Sansa's wedding day, and Miranda the Psycho Girlfriend turns up at her chamber to bathe her, rinsing out the black hair dye and freshening her up for her impending husband.

Ugh, just the thought of the virgin being prepared for sacrifice is vomitous, never mind all of Psycho Miranda's chit chat about Ramsay's past girlfriends and their sticky ends. Double vom. Thankfully Sansa would issue one last power mantra, one I hope stays with her. She chastises Miranda for trying to spirtual, upset her: This is my home and cultures essay, you can't frighten me. She also refused to let Theon take her hand, despite his fear of punishment. Spirtual Essays? Sansa doesn't care what happens to compare contrast essay, him – will she rue those words? Either way she would face her destiny alone. There were more references to the changing weather in essays, this episode, and it culminated at on accounting, the wedding, in brittle, snowy conditions in the Godswood. Short? There was to be no warmth in this marriage, nothing alive. Finally, Theon shows Sansa and Ramsay into the bridal suite, and almost straightaway the hated Bolton shows his true colours.

He menaces Sansa about her virginity, threatening her if she ever lies to him. He orders her to take off her clothes. And then as Theon goes to leave the room, he orders him to phd thesis on accounting, stop. You've known Sansa since she was a girl, he sneers. Now watch her become a woman. With that, he rips her dress, shoves her on the bed, and undoes his belt. Spirtual Essays? We then see only Sansa's face, then Theon's face, the focus, as it should be, on the victims of this sociopath's reprehensible behaviour. To rape Sansa, to commit such act of base barbarism, should perhaps not be surprising coming from paper, a beyond-all-redemption character like Ramsay Bolton. Short Essays? And yet it still does surprise, which is testament to the show's commitment to shock and psychology statement, disgust its faithful audience.

No doubt there will be some controversy about this scene: its violence is palpable and it ranks up there with the spirtual short essays Red Wedding and scholarship, last year's Cersei/Jaime encounter as one of most distressing things the show has committed to film. But it made us confront the reality of sexual violence, and it wasn't glamorous, and it wasn't fetishised. And here might be a good place to spirtual essays, leave the revolution link for the National Sexual Assault, Domestic and Family Violence Counselling Service or urge you to consider donating to a local crisis service. After delivering the cracking line You can smell the shit from five miles away as she approached King's Landing, Lady Olenna returned in short, fine form with a brutal game of (no) manners with Cersei, as the pair negotiated for Slow Lorus' freedom. Olenna: Put your pen down, dear, we both know you're not writing anything. Cersei: There's the phd thesis on accounting famous tart tongue of the Queen of Thorns. Olenna: And there's the famous tart, Queen Cersei. What with bitchy rejoinders like Is this a veiled threat? What veil? and Your father knew how to work with rivals House Lannister has no rival, this whole scene almost took out the next category too, except. The dwarf lives until we find a cock merchant. This line.

T-shirt. My back. Now. Littlefinger, man. Littlefinger. That guy … he is just playing everyone. Abandoning Sansa to her fate in the north (spit in his eye for that), he tells Cersei to let the Boltons fight it out short, with Stannis Baratheon's army, then he can go in with the Knights of the Vale and wipe out whoever's left, claiming the whole kit and caboodle for the Lannisters. Cersei is a dream holiday peeved at the news that Ramsay Bolton will marry Sansa (courtesy of his close sources, pssshaw), and spirtual short essays, agrees to consider Petyr Baelish's one request – to be made Warden of the North.

He is really playing the longest of long games. Ramsay Bolton. We're coming for scientific revolution you. The North Remembers. Game over spirtual, Sophie Monk, give it to the hotel heir.

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