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argumentative text © 2017 Steve Campsall. write a more effective argument. Download free revision guides. Essay? The word argument brings to golden essay, mind an animated disagreement between two people, but for your English homework or exams, a written argument is essay very different. Writing to argue requires that you. put forward a well-considered point of view, stated briefly; provide support for this view; create a sense of balance by referring to one or more other viewpoints; tactfully counter these. Your aim in this kind of writing is not necessarily to powerpoint and contrast essay, 'win' the argument; instead, it is to put forward evidence that is logical and well - considered and which acts to support your point of view and to counter the main alternative views. The evidence you provide must be both convincing and presented convincingly. The evidence needs to be convincing but, in an exam situation at least, it does not have to be factual , i.e. you can 'make it up'; you are allowed to make up such things as expert opinions and statistical evidence to ohio essay contests, support your argument. Importantly, whatever evidence you do use, it must be well considered and reasonable . Remember - whilst you might not agree with an private schools schools, opposing view, that doesn't make it in any way foolish to ohio essay contests, hold. You will need to term about anti, take great care indeed to avoid suggesting that those who hold different views are in any way foolish for doing so. This is such an easy pitfall that catches out very many students.

In large part, it is the degree of politeness and tact that you display when opposing other viewpoints that will win or lose your argument - and gain you the most marks! ARGUMENT OR PERSUASION - what is the difference? 'Writing to argue' and 'writing to ohio, persuade ' both occur on school courses. They are both very similar in as much as they share the same purpose , that of seeking to contests, influence . There are differences that will affect the style of your writing if you are to gain the essay, highest marks. An argument concerns an issue about which people, quite reasonably , hold different views. This suggests that other views are not necessarily wrong - just different . During the process of presenting your argument, therefore, it is reasonable that you should show that you recognise that opposing views exist , not only to hint at private schools versus public schools, what a fair-minded person you are , but to give you the opportunity to counter these views tactfully in order to show why you feel that your own view is the more worthy one to hold . Persuasion has a more single-minded goal . It is based on ohio contests a personal conviction that a particular way of thinking is the only sensible way to think. WELL-REASONED ARGUMENT vs . PASSIONATE PERSUASION! Consider this typical scene in a teenager's life.

The party is on Friday. Golden Essay? and, naturally, you really want to go but your parents have other ideas. They're planning a visit to Great Aunt Bertha and know how much she'd love to see how you've grown since your last visit. Persuading your mum to say yes to the party is your determined goal - because Friday is the deadline and you need an answer now. How to go about it? First, a little calm reasoning ('Everyone from school will be there, mum. Essay? It's a social occasion and versus schools, it'll help me make more friends. ' ), next a little reasoned anger ('When you were young I bet you went to parties. ') and finally, a passionate plea ('Oh, do please try to see it from my position, mum. I can't turn up on Monday the only kid in the class who didn't go. ').

Now if instead of the above, you had been asked to write an article in the school magazine to present a case for a return of end-of-year school disco. well, you don't need that immediate answer, so a well-reasoned argument composed of a series of ohio essay contests, well thought out and well-supported points is likely to win the day. The pressure is on essay college in the first case, but not in ohio essay contests the second. A little history will help. ARGUMENT AND THE ANCIENT ART OF 'RHETORIC' If Aristotle and Cicero were writing this web page, they would be telling you that the ideal form of argument was through the use of about bullying, one thing and ohio contests, one thing alone. reason (which had the Greek name of logos - hence the modern word logic ); however, the two recognised that 'ideal' things must always remain just that - ideas , and private schools schools essays, that human weakness would always mean that two further argument techniques would be brought into use, especially where persuasion was needed. Contests? The first of these is an appeal to character (which they called ethos - hence our term ethical ) and the second? An appeal to the emotions (which they called pathos - a word we now use to suggest the power to stir sad emotions).

Most people believe themselves to be reasonable, so appealing to essay college, a person's sense of essay, reason is likely to be the schools schools, most effective means of convincing them to change their way of essay, thinking ('If we don't do this. then. ' ). Writing an effective argument. An argument should set out to answer the question 'Why?' for ohio essay contests, your viewpoint as well as show awareness and understanding of your opponent's views . The secrets of success? Show you understand the genre conventions of the ohio, form - that is, the format - in which you are asked to write (e.g. an article, a letter, a speech, etc.). Thesis On The American Dream Great? Find common ground - an endpoint upon which all would agree . Show consideration of essay contests, but counter with politeness and tact your opponent's views. Golden College? Use effective argumentative techniques - that is, use rhetorical devices. Ensure your views unfold logically and persuasively - that is, create a logical structure for your argument. Showing understanding of opposing views. It's crucial to find some common ground that exists between you - there will always be something worthwhile on which both you and your opponents agree. Think hard about the views your opponents hold and why they hold such views - and always recognise and ohio essay, show that they see that this is a fair view to hold (but not the best view. Golden Essay? which is your own).

Be tactful - never show disrespect for another's point of view. Sound sincere - give your writing an authentic feel. Sound interested, knowledgeable, trustworthy and convincing. Logic and reason win arguments - but be passionate about essay contests, your views Avoid sounding superior, condescending or impolite. As made clear already, any suggestion that other viewpoints are 'silly' or 'foolish' is the equivalent of calling your opponent 'silly' and 'foolish'. The result? Lost argument.

Lost marks. Try switching roles - which points would convince you? Showing understanding of form and ohio essay, conventions. Ohio? You may be asked to write in the form of an essay, a formal or informal letter, a newspaper or magazine article, a school newsletter, a speech, and so on. Make sure you know the on compare and contrast essay, genre conventions that apply to each of these. Ohio Essay Contests? Using effective argumentative techniques. Remember that because the other view is reasonably held, you will only win through sensible reasoning, logic and on compare and contrast essay, evidence. Ohio Contests? The key to a successful argument is to plan well, making sure you release your various points in term anti a progressively convincing order.

Try to show that you have planned or, as the examiner's put it: ' consciously shaped your response '. Ohio Essay? This gains many extra marks. You need to show that your reader can trust you - so make up a solid and believable reason why you are in a good position to argue over this issue . An effective way of convincing someone that you are reasonable is to find the paper about anti, common ground that exists between you. This is an outcome that is common to essay contests, you both - an end-point you both desire. Having acknowledged this, you then proceed by showing how your way to this goal is the best way. A solid way to seem reasonable is to acknowledge the main opposing view(s) - but to show subtly how your view is more reasonable. Using an interesting - but entirely reasonable and realistic - anecdote to illustrate your main point can be very compelling and powerpoint and contrast, powerful, e.g. 'Let me tell you about a friend of mine. S/he. '. Use rhetorical devices such as rhetorical questions , 'list of three', repetition, etc. to increase the persuasive power of ohio contests, your argument. Successful arguments are. INTERESTING, ORIGINAL AND APPEALING ORGANISED TO BE PROGRESSIVELY CONVINCING REASONABLE EASY TO FOLLOW THOUGHTFUL AND CONSIDERATE ARGUED FROM A PASSIONATE POSITION SUBTLE and SOPHISTICATED. Here is a small section of the mark scheme the private versus schools essays, examiners from a major examining board use when they award a grade A: #8226; shows sustained awareness of the audience. Ohio Contests? #8226; arguments are convincingly developed and supported by golden essay relevant detail. #8226; ideas are selected and prioritised to construct a sophisticated argument. #8226; paragraphs are effectively varied in length and structure. #8226; a wide range of appropriate, ambitious vocabulary is used.

Planning: put simply, you will lose marks if your argument fails to ohio contests, have an effective structure . So a clear plan is essential to essay college, an effective written argument . The examiner's mark schedule states that your argument needs to ohio, show evidence of being consciously shaped . Decide on the most likely effective style - should you use standard English (probably. ), be very formal (depends. ), be chatty (probably not. Versus Essays? ) and so on. Brainstorm to create a list of ohio, points in critical thinking favour of ohio essay contests, your idea. Choose five of the most convincing . Ohio Contests? Check that each point is truly separate and ohio essay, not a part of a larger, more general point if it is, use the essay contests, larger point. Make sure each point would convince you if you were your opposition! Organise your five points into a progressive and persuasive order. Work out one or two of the main opposing points. Think how you could add authority to your writing: a piece of research, an expert opinion, a quotation from a respected source. (always sensible and made up for the exam!). Would an anecdote be a persuasive device to ohio contests, use? Remember to use reason but state it passionately if appropriate.

Most especially remember that if you as much as even suggest that people are silly or foolish to hold an essay, opposing view you have lost your argument! And worse. Ohio Contests? lost marks. Thinking Scenarios? Open strongly and in an original way to capture your reader's attention. Consider using an anecdote early in the argument. Ohio Essay? State your own point of view but don't be too strident in your tone . Golden College? If relevant and useful, give a little history and background to the argument. Contests? Find some common ground between you and your reader to generate trust and goodwill in you as a person and as a thinker. Essay Contests? 'Selling' yourself will help your reader decide to ohio contests, 'buy' your ideas. CENTRAL or BODY PARAGRAPHS. Open each paragraph with a topic sentence that introduces the points created from essay contests your brainstorm and essay, planning.

Write about four to five more sentences that do no more than explain the point made in the topic sentence. Aim to golden, link each paragraph to the next by using a subtle 'transition' or 'hook' sentence at essay contests, the end of the golden college, preceding paragraph. Acknowledge the main opposing view but sensitively refute it to ohio essay contests, show how your view is more reasonable. Use rhetorical devices . HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF 'RHETORICAL DEVICES' Rhetorical questions, similes, metaphors, emotive language (use with care!), irony (but never sarcasm!, 'lists of three', repetition, hyperbole (exaggeration for effect), humour, anecdotes, and thesis american great, so on. Help your argument flow by using 'discourse markers' . These act as 'signposts' to help your ideas flow and aid your readers journey through your essay.

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF 'DISCOURSE MARKERS' Add authenticity to ohio, your argument by creating a sincere tone , and by using an anecdote . Add authority to your argument by writing confidently and making up sensible but effective support, e.g. 'expert' opinion, statistics, and so on - make this up in the exam, but keep it reasonable. Round up your argument by restating your case succinctly and summarising your main points. End as you began - in a powerful, interesting and memorable way. Each year, literally thousands of students fail to achieve the marks they could. Thesis American And The Great? Don't be one of them ALWAYS CHECK YOUR WRITING BEFORE HANDING IN! Read each sentence immediately after you write it. Read each sentence before you proceed to the next to check it is fluent, accurate and complete. Does it follow on logically from the previous sentence? Check every paragraph. Avoid creating overly short paragraphs as this suggests either a) you do not know what a paragraph is ohio or b) that you have no explained the point of the paragraph in sufficient detail. Try to make sure that each paragraph flows naturally on from its predecessor by using the final sentence of each paragraph to subtly 'hook' into the topic of the next paragraph.

To correct a missed paragraph simply put this mark where you want in to be: // then, in on compare essay your margin write: // = new paragraph. The examiner will not mark you down for this so long as you have not forgotten all of your paragraphs. Examine each comma. Look at every apostrophe. And when one thing belongs to another thing or person, this is ohio essay contests shown by thesis dream great adding apostrophe+s to the owning noun. So the school's entrance shows that this is 'the entrance of the school' and 'Alan's book' shows this is 'the book of Alan'. Similarly, you go 'to the doctor's' and essay contests, 'the chemist's' as well as to 'Sainsbury's' and 'McDonald's' because you mean 'to the doctor's surgery ', 'the chemist's shop ' and so on. Watch out for it's.

With an critical thinking assumptions scenarios, apostrophe it only ever means it is or it has , as in ' it's cold ' or ' it's got three toes missing '. If you mean belonging to ohio contests, it , as in its fur is essay contests shiny and smooth , no apostrophe is essay used.

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12 Best Online Resume Builders Reviewed. Have you ever considered using an online resume builder to create your resume? They can save you the time, blood, sweat, and contests, tears that come with laying out a resume solo. That’s why using a professional resume builder online is an excellent choice for anyone who wants a nice looking resume fast. But which online resume builder should you choose? Well, that’s harder than it sounds.

Some have amazing resume templates but cost an arm and a leg. Essay Contests! Others take a hand-holding approach and will virtually write your resume for you. This article reviews 14 of the essay best resume builders online. You can check out the prices, functionality, and the number of templates and features. Golden! And that way, you can choose the one that best fits your needs. Uptowork is our online resume builder (here) . So, we aren’t going to review ourselves as that would be self-promotional.

We won’t tell you that we’re awesome because our quick resume builder is ohio essay contests, easy to use. We will skip the part where we say we provide you with lots of tips and the best resume templates. Critical Assumptions Scenarios! No. Instead, we will just encourage you to see for essay yourself. Go ahead. Try out our professional resume builder online. Here’s an example of what our easy resume builder is capable of: Starter Version $4.99 for 30 days non-recurring payment Premium Version $9.99 for 30 days non-recurring payment. Term Paper About Anti Bullying! Number of Professional Resume Templates. Yes - can match your cover letter to every available resume builder template. You can make your resume on Resumonk’s online resume builder either for free or for a yearly fee of $19. That makes it one of the cheapest CV makers at essay contests, just over $1.50 a month.

You can move resume format sections around as you see fit and use the writing tips inside the platform. The premium plan comes with resume tracking, unlimited PDF downloads, and a cover letter builder. Golden Essay! Free Version (4 branded templates) Premium Version $19 per year full features Lifetime Version $59 one time payment full features for life. Essay Contests! Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The professional CV builder has an easy-to-use interface. Resumonk has built tips into great the platform so you don’t have to leave the contests page. Private Versus Essays! Con: Using the resume builder for free means getting branded resume builder templates and the ability to contests, download your resume format as a PDF. Powerpoint On Compare And Contrast! SlashCV is a free online resume builder with 28 basic, pre-designed PDF templates. Once you’ve created your resume, you can export it to Dropbox so that it’s easy to ohio contests, save and send.

The free resume builder is minimalistic with no fuss and no extras - you put in your information and it spits out a resume. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: If you’re looking for a resume builder free download with no bells and whistles, this is it. SlashCV is scaled-down and has slashed its online resume builder down to the basics. Con: A lot of features don’t exist here. There is no cover letter builder, no tracking, no tips if you get stuck, and no fancy templates.

If you’re not sure how to critical thinking assumptions, build a resume on your own, this platform might not be for you. To start, you have the option to import your Word or LinkedIn resume. Or you can choose a pre-written resume from your field. Or maybe you’re feeling like a boss? Well, you can also import and ohio, overwrite Richard Branson or Sheryl Sandberg’s resume. After working on on the and the great, the resume builder template, you can save, share, and track your resume to ohio essay, see how many views it gets. Powerpoint On Compare And Contrast! Number of Professional Resume Templates.

Pro: There is an option to ohio contests, get free feedback on your resume before you share it. You can also export your resume as a Google Doc or pay for personal domain name inside the platform. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume maker. You can see full resume samples, but there is essay, no guidance on how to create a resume for yourself. Essay Contests! Cvmaker gives you two choices.

A basic text editor for free, giving you a printable resume template. On Compare! Here you have the essay option to move sections, add sections, and paper anti, add your information with no fuss. Or a paid version that upgrades you to a more advanced rich text editor with more fonts and colors. Ohio! Once you’re finished you can download your resume as a PDF, TXT, or HTML document. So, it’s a choice between color or ‘my resume woke up like this.’ Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Cvmaker is a simple, free tool that saves you from choosing a resume format . If your sole reason for using an private schools essays, online CV builder is to avoid making margins in Word, Cvmaker has you covered.

Con: There are no tips inside this online resume generator so you’re on your own. Cvmaker also adds a pre-packaged reference section that you can’t delete. It comes complete with the phrase “References available upon request.” (You can delete the phrase.) When it comes to what you should put on your resume , lose the reference section and this phrase. You can tell that a lot of design work has gone into Resumup’s templates. Using creative resume builder templates is contests, a way of making your resume unique. Much like putting hobbies and interests on your resume to show that your personality is a good fit for a company. Schools Schools Essays! The functionality of the online resume builder changes depending on which template you choose. Some templates allow you to fill in blanks and ohio, others don’t.

With Resumup, it’s important to about bullying, get attached to a resume builder template. After all, that’s what you’re buying here. Free Version (2 templates Facebook and Plain Text for Notepad) 1 Template for ohio contests 1 Month $15 for 1 month access to college, 1 template 1 Template for 1 Year $6 per month ($72 per year) Any Template for ohio contests 1 Month $20 for 1 month for access to any template Any Template for on the a Year $8 per month at ($96 per year) Lifetime Plan $149 for lifetime access to ohio, any template. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Two templates are free. They include a Facebook ad and an ATS-friendly plain text version of your resume for Notepad. There are no free resume builder templates that download as regular documents. Most templates make you upgrade to add basic sections like skills or achievements. Premium version only. Not for all resume builder templates. Thinking! Pro: The CV creator has a lot of fancy templates including an infographic template.

A lot of them are also mobile friendly. So, if you want a resume that stands out, you’ve got options. Con: A lot of contests these resumes have heavy design elements. That means they are not all fill-in-the-blank deals like everything else on the Internet. It’s best if you’re savvy at manipulating graphics.

Otherwise, you may find the functionality on this online CV builder a bit challenging. 7. Resume Genius and college, Resume Companion. Essay! The Resume Genius and Resume Companion online resume builders are the same, with minor branding and template differences. Term About Anti! Choose a resume builder template to get started. The easy resume builder will give you instructions on how to fill in each blank space.

You pay at the end before downloading your resume. You’ll want to be careful. Resume Genius and Resume Companion will charge you full price after the 14-day trial run. 14-day Access $1.95 for 14 days which self-renews to $39.95 per month ($479.40 a year) Annual Payment $95.40 a year ($7.95 per month) Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The easy resume builder gives you prompts and tips as you go along so you know what to put in essay contests each space. It also gives you pre-written responsibilities matched with “job keywords” that you choose. Con: You can’t leave fields blank when you’re working on thinking assumptions scenarios, a section. The resume wizard will prompt you to ohio, fill them in before allowing you to move to dream great, the next section. Essay Contests! So, you shall not pass without filling in the blanks.

Resumebuilder will onboard you by asking for your field, title, and level of expertise. Much like the Myperfectresume platform. Once you’ve done that, you have to log in using either your email, Facebook, or Google+ details. Yes, they’ve integrated Resumebuilder with Google+. This is another online resume builder where you can’t leave fields blank. Ohio Contests! The resume generator will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to the next section. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Free: None Paid: 28 paid templates in different colors (only 3 with text aligned left) Pro: The online resume maker includes tips.

You can also find pre-written responsibilities if you do not want to ohio contests, write your resume on your own. Thesis On The American Great! The resume generator is great for Google + enthusiasts, who can log in with their account. Con: The CV builder asks for a lot of information. It does not let you move forward until you’ve filled in all blanks with information. So, if you get writer’s block, prepare yourself for a locked room experience. Resume Baking - “ a resume builder that’s easy as pie .” This is a free resume builder, and contests, it’s the only free online resume builder accompanied by a free cover letter builder. On Compare Essay! You can import information from LinkedIn and Facebook. The sections are easy to move around (drag and drop) and fill in, but there are no tips inside the ohio CV creator. On The Dream Great! Instead, there are lots of essay resume samples, objectives, and cover letters.

You choose your template at the end. College! You can share your resume across various social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+). The site will tell you how many views your resume has. Ohio Essay! Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Resume Baking is the term paper only free resume builder online that lets you write cover letters. Contests! It also lets you download your resume, track your resume, and conduct a job search. The CV maker has examples for job seekers who struggle with how to write a resume objective or how to powerpoint essay, make a cover letter . Con: The resume builder templates use colors, fonts, and layouts that may not be appropriate. Try to match modern resume templates with the ohio type of job. Pair more traditional resume builder templates with traditional jobs and creative resume templates with creative jobs.

Starting from the dashboard, you’ve got the schools versus schools option to ohio essay contests, create a cover letter or a new resume. The cover letter is assumptions scenarios, already written for you. All you have to do is fill in the blanks if you don’t want to try writing your own. Ohio Contests! The easy resume builder is straightforward and critical thinking, provides you with tips. Once you’re ready to publish, you can pay for a proofreading service. You also need to pay to print, send, or export your resume as a PDF or Word document.

Free Version Plain Text only downloaded to Notepad 7-day Access $5.95 for 7 days access self-renews to $29.95 per month. Proofreading Service $38 and includes 7 day access to download your resume. Number of ohio Professional Resume Templates. Assumptions! Pro: The easy resume builder’s functionality is contests, straightforward. Once you’re done, you can save your resume as a PDF and as a Word doc. Tou can request proofreading services if you want a real person to check your resume for you. Con: The trial period for access to the premium version is a week shorter than it is on other online resume builders. That means you have less time to access your resume or create alternative versions.

Enhancv will assign you a resume builder template based on thesis dream great, your field and experience. Contests! You can’t choose your own adventure here. It is good about showing you what’s locked until you upgrade. So, you can see what’s on offer and not choose it by accident. The upgrade includes new colors, backgrounds, icons, and fonts. The idea is to golden college, let you can enhance your CV as much as you want. Free Version You can test drive unlocked features and ohio, download resumes for paper anti bullying one month for free. Premium Version $14.90 per month ($178.80 for ohio essay contests a year) Annual Version $11.92 per assumptions scenarios month for contests a year ($143.04 for a year) Student Rates $2.90 per month annually ($34.80 for a year) Number of Professional Resume Templates. One template with 2 unlocked layouts and one locked layout. Pro: Enhancv will soon add an paper anti, option to customize your resume to individual jobs.

That way, you can tailor your resume to ohio essay contests, specific jobs inside the resume creator. Another nice touch is a video that you can watch before buying a package that shows you premium perks. Enhancv is a good resume builder for students as it is the only one on this list that offers student rates. On Compare Essay! Con: You only have one pre-assigned resume builder template. Ohio Essay Contests! If you don’t upgrade your account, you get a branded version. Kickresume kicks out the registration information. It spares you by critical assumptions, giving you immediate access to the online resume builder. You choose your resume builder template and get started. You have the ability to chat with assistants in essay real-time as you go. Also, if you’re into details, notice the witty John Snow and Jane Vader template mockups.

Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: One of the only resume creators on thesis american great, the list that has a proofreading service. It will cost you around 20 bucks but it’s always a good idea to ohio essay, have an actual person proofread your resume. Con: There are only five cover letter templates. So, choosing a fancier resume builder template means that you might not find a cover letter that matches. Choosing an online resume builder format is all about finding one that feels comfortable. The one thing to keep in mind is powerpoint and contrast essay, that not all CV templates are good for ohio essay all jobs. You may find lots of great resume templates, but you will need to decide if they’re going to thesis on the american and the great, help or hurt your chances of landing an interview. But if you’re interested in saving yourself time and essay contests, frustration an private schools public schools, online resume builder is a handy tool.

One that can provide you with a neat and presentable resume in essay no time flat. Not sure how to match the design of your template to your profession? We can help! Let us know your most pressing template questions in the comments, and we will help you figure out how to paper bullying, choose the best one. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Cold War and Global Hegemony, 1945-1991. University of Virginia. We are accustomed to ohio contests viewing the cold war as a determined and heroic response of the private U.S. to communist aggression spearheaded and essay, orchestrated by the Soviet Union. This image was carefully constructed by presidents and critical scenarios, their advisers in their memoirs (1). Ohio? This view also was incorporated in some of the first scholarly works on golden college the cold war, but was then rebutted by a wide variety of revisionist historians who blamed officials in Washington as well as those in Moscow for the origins of the Soviet-American conflict (2). Nonetheless, in the aftermath of the cold war the traditional interpretation reemerged.

John Gaddis, arguably the ohio contests most eminent historian of the cold war, wrote in the mid-1990s that the cold war was a struggle of good versus evil, of wise and democratic leaders in the West reacting to the crimes and inhumanity of ohio contests, Joseph Stalin, the brutal dictator in the Kremlin (3). This interpretation places the cold war in a traditional framework. Essay Contests? It is one way to understand American foreign policy between the schools versus end of essay contests, World War II and the breakup of the Union of ohio contests, Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in essay, 1991. But for quite some time now, historians, political scientists, and economists have been studying the cold war in ohio, a much larger global context. They do so because the new documents from the Soviet Union and its former empire as well as older documents from the U.S. and its allies suggest that Stalin conducted a more complex and inconsistent foreign policy than previously imagined and that U.S. officials initially did not regard Stalin, notwithstanding his crimes and ohio contests, brutality, as an unacceptable partner with whom to collaborate in stabilizing and remaking the postwar world. Most scholars looking at Soviet documents now agree that Stalin had no master plan to spread revolution or conquer the world. He was determined to establish a sphere of influence in eastern Europe where his communist minions would rule. But at the same time, Stalin wanted to term anti bullying get along with his wartime allies in order to control the rebirth of German and Japanese power, which he assumed was inevitable. Consequently, he frequently cautioned communist followers in France, Italy, Greece, and elsewhere to ohio avoid provocative actions that might frighten or antagonize his wartime allies. Within his own country and his own sphere, he was cruel, evil, almost genocidal, just as Gaddis and other traditional scholars suggest (4). Yet U.S. and British officials were initially eager to work with him.

They rarely dwelled upon his domestic barbarism. Typically, President Harry S Truman wrote his wife, Bess, after his first meeting with Stalin: I like Stalin. Golden Essay? He is essay contests straightforward. Knows what he wants and will compromise when he can't get it. Typically, W. Averell Harriman, the U.S. ambassador to Moscow, remonstrated that If it were possible to see him /Stalin/ more frequently, many of our difficulties would be overcome(5). Yet the difficulties were not overcome. American fears grew. To understand them, scholars nowadays examine the global context of postwar American and Soviet diplomacy.

They see the contest between American freedom and Soviet totalitarianism as part of an evolving fabric of international economic and golden college, political conditions in the twentieth century. After World War II, they say, U.S. leaders assumed the role of hegemon, or leader, of the international economy and container of Soviet power. To explain why, scholars examine the operation of the world economy and the distribution of power in the international system. Essay? They look at transnational ideological conflict, the disruption of colonial empires, and the rise of private schools, revolutionary nationalism in ohio essay contests, Asia and powerpoint on compare and contrast essay, Africa. They explain the spread of the cold war from Europe to ohio contests Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America by focusing on about anti decolonization, the rise of ohio contests, newly independent states, and the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and enjoy higher standards of living. Yet the capacity of the essay U.S. to assume the roles of hegemon, balancer, and ohio essay contests, container depended on on compare more than its wealth and strength; the success of the essay contests U.S. also depended on the appeal of its ideology, the vitality of its institutions, and the attractiveness of its culture of mass consumption—what many scholars nowadays call soft power (6).

At the end of World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as the two strongest nations in the world and as exemplars of competing models of essay contests, political economy. Essay? But it was a peculiar bipolarity. The U.S. was incontestably the most powerful nation on the earth. It alone possessed the atomic bomb. It alone possessed a navy that could project power across the oceans and an air force that could reach across the continents. The U.S. On Compare Essay? was also the richest nation in the world. Essay? It possessed two-thirds of the world's gold reserves and three-fourths of its invested capital. Its gross national product was three times that of the Soviet Union and private, five times that of the United Kingdom. Its wealth had grown enormously during the war while the Soviet Union had been devastated by the occupation by Nazi Germany.

Around 27 million inhabitants of the U.S.S.R. died during World War II compared to about 400,000 Americans. The Germans ravished the ohio contests agricultural economy of Soviet Russia and and contrast, devastated its mining and transportation infrastructure (7). Compared to the U.S. in ohio essay contests, 1945, the Soviet Union was weak. Yet it loomed very large not only in the imagination of U.S. On The American Dream And The? officials, but also in ohio essay contests, the minds of political leaders throughout the world. It did not loom large because of fears of Soviet military aggression. Contemporary policymakers knew that Stalin did not want war. They did not expect Soviet troops to march across Europe.

Yet they feared that Stalin would capitalize on paper about the manifold opportunities of the essay postwar world: the vacuums of power stemming from the defeat of Germany and thinking assumptions, Japan; the ohio contests breakup of colonial empires; popular yearnings for postwar social and economic reform; and private versus public, widespread disillusionment with the functioning of democratic capitalist economies (8). During World War II, the American economy had demonstrated enormous vitality, but many contemporaries wondered whether the world capitalist system could be made to ohio essay contests function effectively in peacetime. Its performance during their lifetimes had bred worldwide economic depression, social malaise, political instability, and personal disillusionment. Throughout Europe and Asia, people blamed capitalism for the repetitive cycles of boom and private schools schools essays, bust and for military conflagrations that brought ruin and despair. Describing conditions at essay, the end of the war, the historian Igor Lukes has written: Many in Czechoslovakia had come to believe that capitalism. had become obsolete. Influential intellectuals saw the world emerging from the ashes of the war in black and white terms: here was Auschwitz and there was Stalingrad. The former was a byproduct of term paper about anti bullying, a crisis in ohio, capitalist Europe of the 1930s; the latter stood for the superiority of socialism (9). Transnational ideological conflict shaped the cold war.

Peoples everywhere yearned for a more secure and better life; they pondered alternative ways of organizing their political and economic affairs. Everywhere, communist parties sought to present themselves as leaders of the resistance against fascism, proponents of socioeconomic reform, and golden, advocates of national self-interest. Their political clout grew quickly as their membership soared, for example, in Greece, from 17,000 in 1935 to 70,000 in ohio, 1945; in golden essay, Czechoslovakia, from 28,000 in ohio essay, May 1945 to 750,000 in paper about anti bullying, September 1945; in Italy, from 5,000 in 1943 to contests 1,700,000 at the end of 1945 (10). For Stalin and critical thinking assumptions, his comrades in ohio contests, Moscow, these grassroots developments provided unsurpassed opportunities; for Truman and golden college, his advisers in Washington, they inspired fear and ohio essay, gloom. There is critical thinking assumptions complete economic, social and ohio contests, political collapse going on in Central Europe, the extent of which is unparalleled in history, wrote Assistant Secretary of powerpoint on compare and contrast, War John McCloy in ohio essay contests, April 1945 (11). The Soviet Union, of course, was not responsible for these conditions. Danger nonetheless inhered in the capacity of the golden college Kremlin to essay contests capitalize on thesis on the great them. The greatest danger to the security of the United States, the CIA concluded in one of its first reports, is the possibility of economic collapse in Western Europe and the consequent accession to ohio essay contests power of Communist elements (12).

Transnational ideological conflict impelled U.S. officials to take action. They knew they had to restore hope that private markets could function effectively to serve the essay needs of humankind. Essay Contests? People had suffered terribly, Assistant Secretary of on compare and contrast, State Dean G. Acheson told a congressional committee in 1945. They demanded land reform, nationalization, and social welfare. They believed that governments should take action to alleviate their misery. They felt it so deeply, said Acheson, that they will demand that the whole business of state control and essay, state interference shall be pushed further and further (13). Policymakers like Acheson and McCloy, the on compare essay officials who became known as the contests Wise Men of the cold war, understood the causes for the malfunctioning of the capitalist world economy in the interwar years. Essay Contests? They were intent on essay correcting the fundamental weaknesses and ohio essay, vulnerabilities.

Long before they envisioned a cold war with the Soviet Union, they labored diligently during 1943 and ohio contests, 1944 to design the versus public schools International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. They urged Congress to reduce U.S. tariffs. They wanted the American people to buy more foreign goods. They knew that foreign nations without sufficient dollars to purchase raw materials and fuel would not be able to recover easily. They realized that governments short of gold and short of dollars would seek to hoard their resources, establish quotas, and regulate the free flow of capital. And they knew that these actions in the years between World War I and World War II had brought about the contests Great Depression and created the conditions for Nazism, fascism, and essay contests, totalitarianism to flourish (14). Now, as in the year 1920, President Truman declared in early March 1947, we have reached a turning point in contests, history. National economies have been disrupted by the war. Critical Thinking? The future is uncertain everywhere. Economic policies are in a state of flux. Governments abroad, the president explained, wanted to regulate trade, save dollars, and promote reconstruction.

This was understandable; it was also perilous. Essay Contests? Freedom flourished where power was dispersed. But regimentation, Truman warned, was on the march, everywhere. If not stopped abroad, it would force the U.S. to curtail freedom at home. In this atmosphere of doubt and hesitation, Truman declared, the thinking assumptions decisive factor will be the type of leadership that the United States gives the essay world. If it did not act decisively, the world capitalist system would flounder, providing yet greater opportunities for Communism to grow and for Soviet strength to accrue. If the U.S. did not exert leadership, freedom would be compromised abroad and a garrison state might develop at home (15). Open markets and free peoples were inextricably interrelated. To win the transnational ideological conflict, U.S. officials had to make the thesis on the american dream and the great world capitalist system function effectively.

By 1947, they realized the IMF and contests, the World Bank were too new, too inexperienced, and too poorly funded to thesis on the and the accomplish the essay contests intended results. The U.S. had to assume the responsibility to provide dollars so that other nations had the means to purchase food and fuel and, eventually, to powerpoint and contrast essay reduce quotas and curtail exchange restrictions. In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall outlined a new approach, saying the U.S. Contests? would provide the funds necessary to promote the reconstruction of Europe. The intent of the Marshall Plan was to provide dollars to likeminded governments in Western Europe so they could continue to grow their economies, employ workers, insure political stability, undercut the appeal of communist parties, and avoid being sucked into an economic orbit dominated by the Soviet Union. U.S. officials wanted European governments to cooperate and pool their resources for the benefit of their collective well-being and for the establishment of essay, a large, integrated market where goods and essay contests, capital could move freely. Thesis On The And The? In order to do this, the U.S. would incur the responsibility to make the capitalist system operate effectively, at ohio essay, least in schools essays, those parts of the globe not dominated by the Soviet Union. The U.S. would become the hegemon, or overseer, of the global economy: it would make loans, provide credits, reduce tariffs, and insure currency stability (16). The success of the Marshall Plan depended on the resuscitation of the coal mines and ohio contests, industries of college, western Germany (17). Most Europeans feared Germany's revival. Nonetheless, U.S. officials hoped that Stalin would not interfere with efforts to merge the three western zones of Germany, institute currency reform, and create the Federal Republic of Germany. Marshall Plan aid, in fact, initially was offered to Soviet Russia and its allies in ohio essay, eastern Europe.

But Stalin would not tolerate the rebuilding of Germany and golden college, its prospective integration into a western bloc. Nor would he allow eastern European governments to be drawn into an evolving economic federation based on the free flow of essay, information, capital, and private schools versus schools, trade. Ohio Essay? Soviet security would be endangered. Stalin's sphere of influence in eastern Europe would be eroded and his capacity to control the future of German power would be impaired. In late 1947, Stalin cracked down on on compare essay eastern Europe, encouraged the communist coup in Czechoslovakia, and instigated a new round of purges (18). Germany's economic revival scared the French as much as it alarmed the Russians.

The French feared that Germany would regain power to essay contests act autonomously. The French also were afraid that initiatives to term paper about bullying revive Germany might provoke a Soviet attack and culminate in another occupation of France. French officials remonstrated against American plans and demanded military aid and essay, security guarantees (19). The French and other wary Europeans had the capacity to thesis on the shape their future. Essay? They exacted strategic commitments from the schools public essays U.S. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in 1949 as a result of ohio essay contests, their fears about Germany as well as their anxieties about Soviet Russia. U.S. strategic commitments and U.S. troops were part of a double containment strategy, containing the uncertain trajectory of the Federal Republic of Germany as well as the anticipated hostility of the college Soviet Union. Hegemonic responsibilities meant power balancing, strategic commitments, and military alliances (20).

Just as western Germany needed to be integrated into a western sphere lest it be sucked into a Soviet orbit, so did Japan. U.S. officials worried that their occupation of Japan might fail and that the Japanese might seek to enhance their own interests by looking to the Soviets or the communist Chinese as future economic partners. In 1948, U.S. policymakers turned their attention from reforming Japanese social and political institutions to promoting economic reconstruction. Japan's past economic growth, they knew, depended on links to Manchuria, China, and Korea, areas increasingly slipping into communist hands. Japan needed alternative sources of raw materials and outlets for her manufactured goods. Studying the functioning of the global capitalist economy, America's cold warriors concluded that the industrial core of northeast Asia, Japan, needed to be integrated with its underdeveloped periphery in southeast Asia, much like Western Europe needed to have access to petroleum in contests, the Middle East (21). It was the obligation of the hegemon of the world capitalist economy to make sure component units of the system could benefit from the powerpoint and contrast essay operation of the contests whole.

But, as hegemon, the on the great U.S. Ohio? also had to be sensitive to private schools versus public schools essays the worries and responsive to the needs of other countries. In Asia, as in Europe, many peoples feared the revival of the power of essay, former Axis nations. Truman promised them that U.S. troops would remain in Japan, even as Japan regained its autonomy, and that the U.S. would insure peace in the Pacific, even if it meant a new round of security guarantees, as it did with the Philippines and thinking scenarios, with Australia and New Zealand (22). Yet, much as American officials hoped to integrate Japan with Southeast Asia, revolutionary nationalist movements in the region made that prospect uncertain. During World War II, popular independence movements arose in French Indochina and the Netherlands East Indies. Nationalist leaders like Ho Chi Minh in contests, Vietnam and Sukarno in Indonesia wanted to gain control over their countries' future (23). Decolonization was an schools versus public essays, embedded feature of the postwar international system, propelled by the defeat of Japan and the weakening of ohio contests, traditional European powers. Decolonization fueled the cold war as it provided opportunities for the expansion of communist influence.

Third World nationalists wanted to develop, industrialize, and modernize their countries. They often found Marxist-Leninist ideology attractive as it blamed their countries' backwardness on capitalist exploitation. At the same time, the powerpoint essay Soviet command economy seemed to provide a model for rapid modernization. Stalin's successors, therefore, saw endless opportunities for contests expanding their influence in the Third World; leaders in Washington perceived dangers (24). As hegemon of the free world economy, U.S. officials felt a responsibility to contain revolutionary nationalism and to about anti bullying integrate core and periphery. The Truman administration prodded the Dutch and the French to ohio essay contests make concessions to revolutionary nationalists, but often could not shape the outcomes of colonial struggles.

When the French, for example, refused to acknowledge Ho Chi Minh's republic of Vietnam and established a puppet government under Bao Dai in 1949, the public U.S. chose to support the French. Otherwise, Truman and his advisers feared they would alienate their allies in France and permit a key area to gravitate into a communist orbit where it would be amenable to Chinese or Soviet influence. Falling dominos in ohio contests, Southeast Asia would sever the future economic links between this region and Japan, making rehabilitation in the industrial core of northeast Asia all the more difficult (25). In the late 1950s and 1960s Japan's extraordinary economic recovery, sparked by the Korean War and fueled by subsequent exports to North America, defied American assumptions. Versus? Yet, by then, American officials had locked the U.S. into a position opposing nationalist movements led by communists, like Ho Chi Minh. U.S. officials feared that if they allowed a communist triumph in Indochina, America's credibility with other allies and clients would be shattered. Hegemons needed to retain their credibility. Otherwise, key allies, like Western Germany and ohio essay, Japan, might doubt America's will and reorient themselves in paper, the cold war (26). Hegemony and credibility required superior military capabilities. Ohio? Leaders in Washington and term anti, Moscow alike believed that perceptions of their relative power position supported risk-taking on behalf of allies and ohio, clients in Asia and Africa.

In the most important U.S. Thesis And The? strategy document of the cold war, NSC 68, Paul Nitze wrote that military power was an indispensable backdrop to containment, which he called a policy of calculated and ohio contests, gradual coercion. To pursue containment in the Third World and erode support for golden college the adversary, the U.S. needed to have superior military force (27). Prior to 1949, the U.S. had a monopoly of atomic weapons. But after the Soviets tested and developed nuclear weapons of their own, U.S. officials believed they needed to augment their arsenal of strategic weapons. Their aim was not only to deter Soviet aggression in the center of ohio essay, Europe, but also to support the ability of the U.S. to intervene in Third World countries without fear of Soviet countermoves. Nuclear weapons, therefore, produced paradoxical results.

Their enormous power kept the cold war from critical assumptions, turning into a hot war between the ohio essay contests U.S. and the Soviet Union. Leaders on both sides recognized that such a war would be suicidal. But at the same time nuclear weapons encouraged officials in both Washington and Moscow to engage in term about bullying, risk-taking on the periphery, that is, in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and ohio essay contests, the Caribbean because each side thought (and hoped) that the adversary would not dare to escalate the competition into critical thinking assumptions scenarios, a nuclear exchange (28). When Ronald Reagan revived the determination of the U.S. to essay regain military superiority in the 1980s, he sought to use those military capabilities, not for a preemptive attack against the Soviet Union, but as a backdrop to support U.S. interventions on behalf of anti-communist insurgents from golden essay college, Nicaragua and El Salvador to Afghanistan and Angola. In other words, Reagan viewed superior strategic capabilities as a key to containing communism, preserving credibility, and supporting hegemony (29).

For U.S. Essay Contests? officials, waging the cold war required the U.S. to win the transnational ideological struggle and to on the american dream and the great contain Soviet power. To achieve these goals, the U.S. had to contests be an on compare and contrast essay, effective hegemon. This meant that the ohio essay U.S. had to nurture and lubricate the world economy, build and coopt western Germany and Japan, establish military alliances and preserve allied cohesion, contain revolutionary nationalism, and bind the essay industrial core of Europe and Asia with the underdeveloped periphery in the Third World. Essay? To be effective, Cold Warriors believed that superior military capabilities were an incalculable asset. They focused much less attention and allocated infinitely fewer resources to disseminating their values and promoting their culture. Yet scholars of the cold war increasingly believe that America's success as a hegemon, its capacity to evoke support for its leadership, also depended on the habits and on the american dream and the great, institutions of constitutional governance, the resonance of its liberal and humane values, and the appeal of its free market and mass consumption economy (30). For example, see Harry S Truman, Memoirs, Vol I: 1945, Year of Decisions, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1955); Truman, Memoirs, Vol. II: Years of Trial and Hope, 1946-1952, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1956); Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change: The White House Years, 1953-1956 (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1963); Dean G. Acheson, Present at contests, the Creation: My Years at the State Department (New York: Norton, 1969); George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 2 vol. paperback ed. (New York: Bantam, 1967-1972). See, for example, Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); for thesis dream a discussion of the different historiographical approaches, see my essay, The Cold War Over the ohio essay Cold War, in Gordon Martel, ed., American Foreign Policy Reconsidered, 1890-1993 (London: Routledge, 1994). John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). For some of the critical thinking assumptions best new scholarship on Stalin, see Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, reprint (New York: Knopf, 2004, 2003); Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995); Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Eduard Maximilian Mark, Revolution by Degrees: Stalin's National Front Strategy for Europe, 1941-1947, Cold War International History Project Working Paper No.

31 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2001); Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin and the Grand Alliance: Public Discourse, Private Dialogues, and the Direction of Soviet Foreign Policy, 1941-1947, Slovo 13 (2001): 1-15. Robert H. Ferrell, ed., Dear Bess: The Letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910-1959 (New York: Norton, 1983), 522; Harriman to ohio essay Truman, June 8, 1945, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: The Conference of Berlin: The Potsdam Conference, 1945 (2 vols., Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960), 1: 61. For soft power, see Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in golden essay college, World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004); Nye, The Paradox of American Power: Why the World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987), 347-72; R. J. Overy, Russia's War (London: Penguin Books, 1997); Allan M. Winkler, Home Front U.S.A.: America During World War II, 2nd ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2000). Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 1-141. Igor Lukes, The Czech Road to Communism, in Norman M. Naimark and L. IA. Gibianskii, eds., The Establishment of ohio, Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 29; William I. Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945 to schools public the Present (New York: Anchor Books, 2004), 1-125. Ohio? Adam Westoby, Communism Since World War II (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981), 14-5. Private? Memo for the President, by John McCloy, April 26, 1945, box 178, President's Secretary's File, Harry S Truman Presidential Library.

Central Intelligence Agency, Review of the World Situation As It Relates to the Security of the United States, September 26, 1947, box 203, ibid. Testimony by Dean G. Acheson, March 8, 1945, U.S. Essay? Senate, Committee on paper about anti bullying Banking and ohio essay contests, Currency, Bretton Woods Agreement Act, 79th Cong., 1 sess. On Compare? (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945), 1: 35. U.S. Department of Commerce, The United States in the World Economy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1943); Harley A. Notter, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), 128; Georg Schild, Bretton Woods and ohio, Dumbarton Oaks: American Economic and anti bullying, Political Postwar Planning in the Summer of 1944 (New York: St. Martin's, 1995). Harry S Truman, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 1947 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1963), 167-72; see also his Truman Doctrine speech which followed a few days later, 176-80, and ohio, his special message to the Congress on the Marshall Plan, 515-29.

Michael J. Hogan, The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987); David W. Term Paper About Anti Bullying? Ellwood, Rebuilding Europe: Western Europe, America and Postwar Reconstruction (New York: Longmans, 1992); Thomas W. Zeiler, Free Trade, Free World; The Advent of GATT (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999). John Gimbel, The Origins of the contests Marshall Plan (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976); Carolyn Woods Eisenberg, Drawing the Line: The American Decision to thinking Divide Germany, 1944-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Essay Contests? Geoffrey Roberts, Moscow and the Marshall Plan: Politics, Ideology and the Onset of the Cold War, 1947, Europe-Asia Studies 46 (December 1994): 1371-86; V. Thesis And The Great? M. Zubok and Konstantin Pleshakov, Inside the ohio essay contests Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 46-53. William I. Hitchcock, France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for american great Leadership in Europe, 1944-1954 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998). Ohio Contests? Timothy P. Ireland, Creating the Entangling Alliance: The Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981). Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in powerpoint on compare and contrast essay, Asia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985); Howard B. Schonberger, Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945-1952 (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1989); John W. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in ohio contests, the Wake of private schools, World War II (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999), 271-3, 525-46.

Leffler, Preponderance of ohio essay contests, Power, 346-7, 393-4, 428-32, 464-5; Roger Dingman, The Diplomacy of Dependency: The Philippines and Peacemaking with Japan, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27 (September 1986): 307-21; Henry W. Brands, From ANZUS to SEATO: United States Strategic Policy toward Australia and New Zealand, 1952-1954 International History Review 9 (May 1987): 250-70. For the emerging nationalist struggles in Indochina and Indonesia, see William J. Duiker, Sacred War: Nationalism and Revolution in a Divided Vietnam (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995); George McTurnan Kahin, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952). Term Paper Anti Bullying? Odd Arne Westad, The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms, Diplomatic History 24 (Fall 2000): 551-65; David C. Engerman, Nils Gilman, Mark H. Haefele, and Michael E. Latham, eds., Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003). Mark Atwood Lawrence, Transnational Coalition-Building and the Making of the Cold War in Indochina, 1947-1949, Diplomatic History 26 (Summer 2002): 453-80; Andrew Jon Rotter, The Path to Vietnam: Origins of the American Commitment to Southeast Asia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987). For the importance of credibility, see the pathbreaking article by Robert J. Ohio Contests? McMahon, Credibility and World Power, Diplomatic History 15 (Fall 1991): 455-71. NSC 68, United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, April 14, 1950, in Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, eds., Containment: Documents on thinking scenarios American Policy and Strategy, 1945-1950 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), 401-2; NSC 114/2, Programs for National Security, October 12, 1951, Department of essay contests, State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1951: National Security Affairs; Foreign Economic Policy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979), 1: 187-89.

For Soviet policy, see A. A. Fursenko and Timothy J. Naftali, One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy, 1958-1964 (New York: Norton, 1997); Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, Khrushchev's Cold War (New York: Norton, 2005). Peter Schweizer, Reagan's War: The Epic Story of his Forty Year Struggle and Final Triumph Over Communism (New York: Doubleday, 2002). G. John Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 163-214; Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), especially 135-81; Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy and term about bullying, Free Markets in the Twenty-First Century (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2002); Geir Lundestad, Empire by Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Gaddis, We Now Know. Most governments publish primary source documents regarding the history of their foreign policy. These documents are published many decades after the fact, but we now have many documents for the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. For the evolution of the role of the U.S. in the cold war, see U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office); for Britain and essay contests, the cold war, see Foreign and and contrast essay, Commonwealth Office, Documents on British Policy Overseas. Since the end of the cold war, the Cold War International History Project has been publishing (and distributing free of charge) primary source documents from the Soviet Union and other formerly communist nations, including the People's Republic of China.

They are indispensable for understanding the global context of the essay contests cold war. See the Cold War International History Project, Bulletin (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center, 1992-2004). The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has published several volumes of term bullying, documents. See, for example, Woodrow J. Kuhns, ed., Assessing the Soviet Threat: The Early Cold War Years (Springfield, VA: Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1997); Scott A. Contests? Koch, ed., Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union, 1950-1959 (Washington, D.C.: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1993); Ben B. Fischer, At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991 (Reston, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1999). There are several key Web sites for locating primary source materials on the cold war. The most important are the Cold War International History Project, the National Security Archive, the Parallel History Project for information on NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and thinking assumptions scenarios, the Primary Source Microfilm. The Federation of American Scientists also has a Web site with valuable documents on many issues, like the nuclear arms race. Many U.S. Contests? government agencies also have Web sites containing documents on current and essay, past foreign policy. The presidential libraries have sites containing selected documents, speeches, oral histories, and other information.

For short books locating the cold war in a global context, see Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); David S. Painter, The Cold War: An International History (New York: Routledge, 2002); Geoffrey Roberts, The Soviet Union in World Politics: Coexistence, Revolution and Cold War, 1945-1991; (New York: Routledge, 1999); Geir Lundestad, East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Relations since 1945, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). Many scholars are now using primary documents from the former Soviet Union and other communist countries to study the cold war. In addition to the books and articles listed in ohio contests, note 3, see David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: the Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994); William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: Norton, 2003); Hope M. College? Harrison, Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003). Some of the most fascinating books deal with Chinese foreign policy and the relations between Mao Tse-tung and Stalin. See, for example, S. N. Goncharov, John Wilson Lewis, and Litai Xue, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993); Jian Chen, Mao's China and the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of contests, North Carolina Press, 2001). For key books on the effort to reconstruct the world economy after World War II, see Richard N. Gardner, Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy in Current Perspective: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980); Herman Van der Wee, Prosperity and Upheaval: The World Economy, 1945-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); Alfred E. Eckes and Thomas W. Thinking? Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003). For transnational ideological conflict and the cold war, see Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); Walt W. Essay? Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, 3rd. ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Francois Furet, The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Odd Arne Westad, Cold War and Revolution: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Michael E. Latham, Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and powerpoint on compare and contrast essay, Nation-Building in the Kennedy Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); David C. Ohio Essay? Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Russian Development (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

There are some wonderful studies on critical thinking decolonization, revolutionary nationalism, and the cold war. See, for ohio example, Robert J. McMahon, Colonialism and Cold War: The United States and the Struggle for Indonesian Independence, 1945-49 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981); Frances Gouda and Thijs Brocades Zaalberg, American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia: US Foreign Policy and Indonesian Nationalism, 1920-1949 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002); Matthew James Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 (Chapel Hill: University of term about anti, North Carolina Press, 2002). The Vietnam War is often examined in this context; see, for ohio essay contests example, William J. Duiker, U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994); George C. Paper Anti? Herring, America's Longest War: The United States and contests, Vietnam, 1950-1975, 4th ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002). For power and critical thinking assumptions scenarios, the cold war, see Mark Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945-1963 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999); William Curti Wohlforth, The Elusive Balance: Power and Perceptions During the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993); Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992).

Raymond L. Garthoff has written two lengthy and essay contests, illuminating books that link power and ideology. See Garthoff, Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations From Nixon to Reagan (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1985) and The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994). For discussions of the and contrast essay end of the cold war that focus on ideas and transnational movements, see Matthew Evangelista, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999); Robert D. English, Russia and essay contests, the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals, and the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); Lawrence S. Wittner, Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003). For discussions of hegemony and soft power, see the ohio essay contests citations in essay, notes 5 and 29. Melvyn P. Leffler is the Edward Stettinius Professor of American History at The University of Virginia. Currently, he is a Jennings Randolph Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace and on compare, holds the Henry Kissinger Chair at the Library of Congress.

His book, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford University Press, 1993), won the Bancroft, Ferrell, and Hoover prizes. He is now writing a book about why the Cold War lasted as long as it did and why it ended when it did.

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Domestic Violence: the facts, the issues, the future - Speech by ohio essay contests the Director of Public Prosecutions, Keir Starmer QC. Domestic violence is serious and pernicious. Critical! It ruins lives, breaks up families and has a lasting impact. It is criminal. Ohio Essay Contests! And it has been with us for a very long time. Paper About! Yet it is only in the last ten years that it has been taken seriously as a criminal justice issue. Before that the ohio, vast majority of cases were brushed under the carpet with the refrain it's just a domestic.

Some good progress has now undoubtedly been made since those administering criminal justice woke up to domestic violence and I will touch on some aspects of that progress later. But first it is worth reminding ourselves just how serious and pernicious domestic violence is. Nearly 1 million women experience at least one incident of thesis on the american dream and the great domestic abuse each year ( 2009/10 British Crime Survey data:http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs10/hosb1210.pdf as reported in ohio latest cross-government VAWG strategy http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/call-end-violence-women-girls/vawg-paper?view=Binary ) At least 750,000 children a year witness domestic violence ( DoH, (2002) Women's Mental Health : Into the Mainstream, accessed at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations/Closedconsultations/DH_4075478 p.16) Two women are killed each week by their partner or ex-partner ( Womens Aid (March 2011) accessed at: http://www.womensaid.org.uk/domestic-violence-articles.asp?section=00010001002200410001itemid=1280 ) 54 per cent of women victims of serious sexual assault were assaulted by their partner or ex-partner ( Stern, (2010) The Stern Review p.9 accessed at http://www.equalities.gov.uk/pdf/Stern_Review_of_Rape_Reporting_1FINAL.pdf ) Victims of domestic violence are more likely to experience repeat victimisation than victims of any other types of on compare essay crime( British Crime Survey Reports ) 76 per cent of all DV incidents are repeat ( Flatley, Kershaw, Smith, Chaplin and Moon (July 2010) BCS - Crime in England and Wales 2009/10 , Home Office, accessed at essay contests http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs10/hosb1210.pdf p24 ) Women experience an average of 35 incidents of domestic violence before reporting an incident to schools versus schools, the police ( Yearnshaw 1997, accessed at http://safer.sthelens.gov.uk/SITEMANV2/publications/40/0901316LeafletsforDVVictims_3.pdf ) 19 per cent of women have experienced stalking since the ohio essay, age of 16 ( Smith (Ed.), Coleman, Eder and Hall (January 2011) Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10 Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2009/10, Home Office accessed at http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs11/hosb0111.pdf ) These statistics are shocking and demonstrate that women are still more at term about risk of violent crime at home than anywhere else. What then have we done? How far have we got? And what else is needed? First and foremost we now prosecute far more cases than before. Back in 2001, the CPS did not even monitor domestic violence cases.

That only ohio essay started in 2004. But the figures since then indicate progress. In 2004/05, we prosecuted 35,000 defendants for domestic violence. That figure has been steadily rising. By 2008-09 it had almost doubled to 67,000 and in 2009/10 it rose again to just over 74,000. Still low compared with the British Crime Survey figures, but nonetheless progress. The conviction rate has also risen dramatically.

In 2002 a snapshot showed us that only 49 per cent of CPS prosecutions for domestic violence succeeded. That rose to about 65 per cent in paper bullying 2006/07 and the conviction rate for domestic violence in 2009/10 now stands at 72 per cent. Essay Contests! That again, is progress. There is also some emerging evidence of progress at a much deeper level. The CPS recently commissioned CAADA (Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse) to carry out further analysis of their recent survey of 1,247 victims.

CAADA has trained over 1000 Independent Domestic Violence Advisers (IDVAs) and their findings are of ohio essay significant interest. Not only ohio contests was there a successful outcome in 73 per cent of the domestic violence cases where an paper about bullying IDVA supported the ohio essay contests, victim but also 66 per schools public schools essays, cent of all victims supported, regardless of the ohio essay, outcome of the term about, case, reported a cessation or reduction of domestic violence as a result. Further analysis will no doubt be needed, but this is encouraging. If we are to improve on these figures, it is ohio contests, worth pausing to consider how this progress was achieved. Cause and effect are not always easy to prove in criminal justice, but, to my mind, the on compare essay, following factors undoubtedly contributed to our progress: since 2001 the CPS has issued clear guidance to prosecutors on bringing domestic violence cases; this guidance makes it clear that whatever form it takes, domestic violence is ohio essay contests, rarely a one-off incident. It is often a series of incidents, often increasing in frequency and seriousness, capable of a cumulative effect on the victim; the guidance also makes clear that, as prosecutors, It is important that we work closely with the police and other agencies to ensure that the best evidence is gathered and presented to the court. A strong, coordinated prosecution team is required to build and public schools manage a case proactively; the guidance instructs prosecutors to liaise with IDVAs, Witness Care Units and voluntary sector support organisations, to ensure that the ohio, victim's needs particularly relating to safety are addressed throughout the critical thinking assumptions, life of a case; between 2005-2008, the CPS engaged in ohio contests a huge training exercise; training all of our prosecutors on domestic violence; that training emphasised to prosecutors that they must consider special measures requirements in domestic violence cases at an early stage and schools public schools should where appropriate, work with the relevant agencies to refer victims to specialist domestic violence support services early in the process; the essay, CPS took over responsibility for charging in domestic violence cases in 2005; we have put in place Violence Against Women co-ordinators who provide guidance and support to other staff when dealing with rape, domestic violence, child abuse, forced marriage and honour-based crime; we have set up special panels to scrutinise our cases and invited those outside our organisation who have expert knowledge about violence against private schools public schools essays, women to become panel members and to hold us to account: and in September last year we issued guidance on stalking and harassment. Alongside these developments, the ohio essay contests, police have also worked hard to essay contests, improve their performance in domestic violence cases. And, of course, specialist domestic violence courts have been set up. These courts were first established in 2005 and represent a partnership approach to ohio contests, domestic violence by the police, prosecutors, court staff, the probation service and schools versus schools essays specialist support services for ohio essay contests victims. Magistrates sitting in these courts are fully aware of the approach and the majority have received additional training.

These courts provide a specialist approach to dealing with domestic violence cases in magistrates' courts. Agencies work together to identify, track and risk assess domestic violence cases, support victims of domestic violence and share information better so that more perpetrators are brought to critical, justice. In 2005/06 there were 25 specialist domestic violence courts; today there are 143. I have already set out some of the shocking statistics on domestic violence. The position is improving domestic violence now accounts for ohio 14 per cent of violent crime whereas in 1997 it accounted for 23 per cent. But that figure is still far too high and the level of violence is disturbing. A recent study showed that 76 per cent of domestic violence victims supported by IDVAs had experienced severe abuse, by which I mean violence causing injuries, strangulation, rape and other sexual abuse, stalking, extremely controlling behaviour, and threats of harm to children. 91 per cent of victims supported by IDVAs through the criminal justice process experienced physical abuse; in 67 per cent of cases that meant strangling or choking. Critical! Half of the victims who went to court feared for their lives and a quarter that their children were going to be harmed. So, clearly, we have made some progress, but, equally clearly, there is more work to do.

Attitudes need to change. A poll as recently as 2009 revealed that around 1 in 5 of those polled thought it would be acceptable in essay contests certain circumstances for versus a man to hit or slap his wife or girlfriend if she dressed in sexy or revealing clothing in public. Young people and domestic violence. The issues I have already touched on are complicated by the increase in domestic violence among young people. Research shows that women aged between 16 and 19 are at the highest risk of sexual assault (7.9 per cent), stalking (8.5 per cent) and ohio essay contests domestic abuse (12.7 per cent). And women aged between 20 and 24 are only slightly less at risk, stalking (7.5 per cent) and domestic abuse (11.1 per cent). Recent research from NSPCC in 2009 has shown that exploitation and violence in teenage relationships are more common than previously thought.

So, for example: 13 to 15-year-olds are as likely to experience violence as the over-16s 25 per cent of girls and 18 per cent of boys surveyed reported that they had experienced some form of physical violence Nearly 75 per and the, cent of ohio essay girls reported that they had experienced some sort of emotional violence from partners Over 75 per cent of about bullying girls with an older partner (in particular a much older one) reported that they had experienced physical violence. We are clearly at risk of a whole new generation of domestic violence. Gritty problems still persist in the prosecution of domestic violence. Over 6,500 domestic violence cases failed in essay 2009/10 because the victim either failed to attend court or retracted her evidence; that's 1 in 3 of all failed cases.

That compares with a general figure of essay about 9 per cent for all prosecutions. Recent analysis of failed domestic violence cases in Essex shows a very clear picture. Essay! Where the paper about anti, CPS can get a case to court, the overwhelming majority of defendants plead guilty, with only a small proportion electing for a trial. Where there are trials, most prosecutions succeed. Ohio! But the powerpoint on compare, critical problem is persuading victims not to withdraw from the process along the way either by retracting, refusing to give evidence or withdrawing support for essay contests the case. We have tried to mitigate this problem by instructing our prosecutors to prepare their cases on the assumption that the victim may in the end not support the prosecution.

We have also issued witness summons' to bring reluctant witnesses to thesis on the dream, court. Essay Contests! Used appropriately, these can be very effective, not least because they remove from the contests, victim the choice of whether to essay, go to court (and with it a pressure point often exploited by perpetrators) and instead impose on them a duty to attend. Our guidance here is clear. Before a decision to issue a summons is term paper about bullying, taken, we must make enquiries to satisfy ourselves, as far as possible, that the safety of the victim and any children will not be endangered by our decision. Through the police, we should check that the victim has been made aware of available specialist support and seek the views of that specialist support. And a summons should only be considered once it has been determined that the victim will not give evidence, even with the help of essay special measures and other support; the case cannot proceed without the participation of the victim; and the safety of the victim and any children will not be jeopardised by the case continuing. But summonsing victims to court should be the last resort. Far better to be able to proceed on the basis of other evidence.

And that drives us back to the importance of evidence gathering at an early stage. The first hour after the police arrive on on the great the scene is critical. How did the victim look? What was her demeanour? Was she injured? Was she dishevelled? Was furniture overturned or broken?

Did the neighbours hear anything? Videos and photos of the essay, scene can be invaluable; as can the tape of the '999' call (very often the on the dream and the, single most critical piece of contemporary evidence). When I visited Norfolk and essay Suffolk recently, as part of my frequent visits to CPS staff on schools versus schools the ground, I was pleased to ohio contests, find some really good examples of on the american dream and the best practice in evidence gathering and the use of 999 tapes in particular. Ohio Contests! For example, in the Suffolk case of ohio essay contests Doyle, the victim was giving the defendant, who was her ex-boyfriend, a lift in ohio essay contests her car when, during the course of the journey, he became angry and punched the windscreen causing it to crack. Essay! The victim telephoned the essay, police when she arrived home. On The American Dream And The Great! The officer who attended her home saw the essay, damage to the windscreen. He noted the victim was visibly upset and ohio essay contests arrested the defendant. The defendant denied the offence claiming that the essay, windscreen had been damaged by a pigeon. The defendant's knuckles were seen to versus public, be injured. At the first hearing some two weeks later, the defendant pleaded not guilty and suggested that a withdrawal statement had been made by the victim. The case was listed for trial some 6 weeks later and, in the intervening period, a withdrawal statement was duly received from the police.

However, the police had a copy of the 999 tape, which included in the background an admission to ohio essay, the offence by powerpoint and contrast the defendant. When that was served on the defendant, he promptly changed his plea to guilty. Suffolk has also successfully used photographs taken by the attending officer at the time of the report. In one case they were used to prove the presence of reddening to a complainant's neck, providing corroboration to the claim of contests her being choked. In the end this was critical because by the time the scene of crime photographs were taken, the reddening had faded.

In Norfolk, 999 tapes are a routine part of the evidence used in domestic violence cases. All 999 calls are recorded by thesis american dream the police on to a digital hard drive, called a red box recorder. The police send the CPS charging lawyer the 999 call attached to an email, together with a CD on which it is recorded. The process of locating the 999 recording and downloading it takes about 10 minutes. Ohio Essay! The success of this approach is demonstrated by the recent Norfolk case of Larkin, where he defendant was convicted when the 999 tape was played at court and the victim could clearly be heard in a distressed state in the background. Is there a link between using this evidence gathered early at the scene and success? I think so. In Suffolk the conviction rate for domestic violence is 84 per cent; in Norfolk it's over 80 per cent. We have worked hard to improve our prosecutions in golden domestic violence cases. Numbers are up; success rates are up. And we have begun to work out how to contests, overcome the difficulties posed by a reluctant, withdrawing or retracting victim.

But we should not be complacent. We need to be sure that we are applying best practice everywhere and consistently. That is why we introduced a new quality assurance regime earlier this year. As well as monitoring the critical thinking scenarios, numbers of cases we bring and our success rate, we need to monitor the ohio essay contests, quality of our decisions. The new assurance regime allows us to do that by encouraging coordinators to review files, at a minimum 25 per cent of all rape files, on a six monthly basis.

This is an paper bullying intense exercise and ohio essay the role of schools public schools our Violence Against Women Co-ordinators across the contests, country will be pivotal. But I am sure it will pay dividends. We are also working closely with ACPO to improve domestic violence investigations and thesis american and the prosecutions. ACPO is in the process of reviewing the use of the risk assessment tool (DASH) and the information that is used by officers to gather evidence. At the same time, the ACPO domestic violence lead is engaged in joint work with the CPS to identify best practice in evidence gathering and how best to make use of technology in domestic violence cases. Meanwhile, at a national level CPS and ACPO plan to develop a joint quick checklist for ohio essay use by both police and prosecutors on the key issues for enhanced evidence gathering and charging. In February this year we issued interim guidance to prosecutors about the factors that should be considered before charging a person involved in rape or domestic violence allegations with an offence of thesis on the american dream great perverting the ohio, course of private schools schools justice. We are consulting on this guidance (which is available on the CPS website at http://www.cps.gov.uk/consultations/pcj_index.html) and I invite the views of all interested parties, especially those with experience of this complex and sensitive area. One of the key reasons for issuing this interim guidance was to ensure that victims of rape and domestic violence have the confidence to come forward and report abuse, safe in the knowledge that they will only be prosecuted for perverting the course of justice if their original allegation is false and ohio not where they later feel unable to support a prosecution and withdraw.

These are all important initiatives. But they need to be underpinned by a resolve to continue our hard work on domestic violence cases. The Spending Review in 2010 was the most challenging in the 25 year history of the CPS. American Dream Great! We must find savings of 24 per cent to essay, our budget in four years. Clear decisive action is needed. That is why we have already restructured the organisation from 42 CPS Areas to critical scenarios, 13, committed ourselves to a significant reduction in our staff and redoubled our efforts to increase efficiency in criminal justice, not least by pioneering the digital file. But we must also get our priorities right. Essay! As I said when I started, domestic violence is serious and pernicious. Powerpoint On Compare And Contrast! It ruins lives, breaks up families and has a lasting impact. It is criminal. It must remain a priority for the CPS.

But even if domestic violence remains a priority for the CPS, there remains the wider issue of complacency. Most people are still unaware of the extent of domestic violence and its impact. And, although greatly reduced, the refrain It's just a domestic is still heard far too frequently. The steps that we and our criminal justice partners are taking to tackle domestic violence risk limited success unless this complacency is tackled head on. A change in attitude is clearly needed.