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Word-searchable text of good essay vocabulary, Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis. Below is a word-searchable text of critical scenarios, Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis unearthed by essay Politico . For a PDF copy, click here. Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. presented to Princeton University.
in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of. Bachelor of Arts. Department of Sociology. Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. (c) Michelle LaVaughn Robinson, 1985. I hereby declare that I am the sole author of essay, this thesis. I authorize Princeton University to lend this thesis to oth- er institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. I further authorize Princeton University to reproduce this. thesis by good vocabulary photocopying or by other means, in total or in.
part, at the request of other institutions or individuals. for the purpose of scholarly research. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. Princeton University requires the signatures of speech self critique essay, all persons. using or photocopying this thesis. Please sign below, and.
give address and good date. I. INTRODUCTION 1. II. HYPOTHESIS 4. Dependent Variables 4. Interaction Attitudes 4. Comfort and its Relationship to. Interaction Attitudes 5. Benefit Attitudes 9. Change Over Time in the Dependent Variables 11.
Independent Variables 15. Causal Model 18. Measures of the Dependent Variables 22. Measures of the Independent Variables 24. IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26. Description of the essays day speech Sample 26. General Attitudes of Respondents 27.
Background of the good essay vocabulary Respondents 33. Explanatory Findings 36. Time vs. Ideologies 36. Time vs. General Comfort and thinking Motivation. to Black Community 37. Association Between Time and Ideologies 39. Time and essay vocabulary its Correlates 40. Association Between Ideologies and.
Schools Attended 43. Associations between Ideologies and the. Dependent Variables 44. V. Mla Format Cover Letter? SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51. Revised Causal Model 51. Major Conclusion 53. New Hypothesis 57. To Mom, Dad, Craig, and essay vocabulary all of my special friends: Thank-you for loving me and always making me feel good about. This thesis would not have been possible without the help.
and guidance of critical thinking assumptions scenarios, my advisor, Professor Walter Wallace. Thank-you Professor Wallace you have made me a much better. I would also like to thank my respondents, members of the. ABPA, who participated in my study. It is good to know that. Black Princeton students can count on the support of the essay As- Special thanks to Mr. Steve Dawson, President of the ABPA, and Mr.
Richard Roper for their time and support. Finally, I would like to phd thesis writing thank Pat Larue and the Alumni Records. office for assisting me in mailing my questionnaires. The purpose of this study is to examine various attitudes. of Black Princeton alumni in their present state and as they. are perceived by the alumni to have changed over good, time. Critical Thinking? This.
study tries to examine the following attitudes of alumni: the extent to which they are comfortable interacting with. Black and essay vocabulary with White individuals in various activities; the. extent to phd thesis writing chennai which they are motivated to benefit the Black com- munity in comparison to other entities such as themselves, their families, God, etc.; the ideologies they hold with re- spects to race relations between the Black and White commu- nities; and feelings they have toward the Black lower class. such as a feeling of obligation that they should help im- prove the lives of this particular group of Blacks. As a future Black alumnus, this study is essay, particularly in- teresting because often times I take my own attitudes about. such issues for granted;. never pausing to reflect upon how. my experiences at Princeton may somehow have caused my atti- tudes to mla format change. Essay? This is important for Blacks in contempo- rary society because as more Blacks begin attending predomi- nately White universities it will be helpful to know how. their experiences in these universities affect their future. attitudes. Speech Essay? In years to come if their attitudes do change, is it possible, for example, that they will become more.
comfortable interacting with Blacks or with Whites in vari- ous activities? Will they become more or less motivated to. benefit the Black community? If there is a change in their. attitudes to what might it be attributed? Will they feel. any obligation as a member of the Black community to help.
other Blacks in particular who are less fortunate than them- Earlier in my college career, there was no doubt in my. mind that as a member of the Black community I was somehow. obligated to this community and would utilize all of good essay vocabulary, my. present and future resources to benefit this community first. and foremost. My experiences at mla format cover letter Princeton have made me far. more aware of my “Blackness” than ever before. I have found. that at good vocabulary Princeton no matter how liberal and open-minded some. of my White professors and classmates try to be toward me, I. sometimes feel like a visitor on campus; as if I really.
don’t belong. Regardless of the circumstances underwhich I. interact with Whites at Princeton, it often seems as if, to. them, I will always be Black first and private versus public essays a student second. These experiences have made it apparent to me that the. path I have chosen to follow by good essay attending Princeton will. likely lead to writing my further integration and/or assimilation. into a White cultural and social structure that will only. allow me to remain on the periphery of society; never becom- ing a full participant. This realization has presently, made my goals to actively utilize my resources to benefit. the Black community more desirable. At the same time , however, it is good essay, conceivable that my.
four years of exposure to a predominately White, Ivy League. University has instilled within me certain conservative val- ues. For example, as I enter my final year at Princeton, I. find myself striving for scenarios, many of the same goals as my White. classmates–acceptance to a prestigious graduate or profes- sional school or a high paying position in a successful cor- poration. Thus, my goals after Princeton are not as clear. Is it possible that other Black alumni share these feel- ings? Do most alumni experience a change in their atti- tudes; and, if so, how are they likely to good essay change? This. study will try to provide some answers to these questions. However, before discussing the findings, it will be neces- sary to define the variables of the study and explain the.
methods used to day speech measure these variables. This. study focuses on four dependent variables which may. be divided into vocabulary two attitude categories: 1) the extent to. which respondents to the questionnaire feel personally and. ideologically comfortable interacting with Blacks and with. Whites; and 2) the phd thesis relative degree of motivation these re- spondents have to benefit various entities–including the. Black community, themselves, their families, and vocabulary the Ameri- can community at large (which is, of course, predominately. White). Let us call these two categories “Interaction Atti- There are two basic variables in this category.
By in- quiring about the relative comfort that the respondents feel. when interacting with both Blacks and Whites in various ac- tivities, the study tries to speech self essay provide some idea of the re- spondents’ personal preferences when interacting with Blacks. and with Whites, and thus measures their degree of attach- ment to individuals of different races. In addition, the. study also inquires about respondents’ ideological prefer- ences regarding relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Let us consider these two variables more closely.
Comfort and its Relationship to Interaction Attitudes. Webster’s Dictionary of good, English offers several key syno- nyms for “comfort”, some of which are ease, pleasure, and. enjoyment. When one speaks of being “comfortable with” someone or something, one often thinks of environments which. promote feelings of ease and with which one is familiar, such as being in mla format cover, one’s own home or with one’s family and. close friends. Good Vocabulary? More often than not, one finds comfort in.
things with which one is familiar rather than in unfamiliar. things. It is also more likely that one is more attached to. to things with which one is familiar than to things with. which one is unfamiliar. Therefore, in speech critique essay, the case of the good re- spondents, I argue that the relative sense of comfort they. may feel when interacting with Blacks in comparison to. Whites (and vice versa) in various activities reflects the. relative ease and familiarity the teachers day speech respondents feel with. Blacks in vocabulary, comparison to mla format letter essay Whites which, in turn, indicates the. extent to which the respondents are personally attached to.
Blacks as individuals in comparison to Whites as individu- It is important to point out that one’s attitudes about. race relations on an individual level have an important de- gree of logical independence from one’s attitudes about race. relations on a community level. An individual who is more. personally comfortable with Blacks than with Whites on an. individual level need not hold political ideologies which.
support the separation of Blacks and good essay vocabulary Whites on day speech, a community. level. Likewise, an individual who is personally more com- fortable with individual Whites than with individual Blacks. may or may not hold ideologies which support the integration. of Blacks and Whites on vocabulary, a community level. Therefore, it is. necessary to measure attitudes towards relations between. Blacks and mla format cover essay Whites on vocabulary, a community level (to be referred to as. “ideologies”) independently from personal attitudes towards.
relations between Blacks and Whites on an individual level. The variable to be discussed next tries to accomplish this. by mesauring the critical assumptions scenarios extent to which the respondents are separa- tionist and/or pluralist or integrationist and/or assimilia- tionist (to be referred to as sep/plur and int/assim). Separationism/Pluralism and essay Integrationism/Assimilationism. Unlike the discussion of “comfort”.in the grade essays previous sec- tion, literature defining concepts of sep/plur and int/assim. was found. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the role of. these concepts in good vocabulary, this study, the following section will. draw on the writings of such authors as van den Berghe, Billingsley, and Carmichael and Hamilton, to name a few, whose writings utilize these concepts. van den Berghe (1967), discusses the possibility of two.
types of pluralism: 1)cultural structural pluralism in. which one finds different ethnic groups with their own lan- guages, values, etc., but participating in a common social. structure (things people do together); and 2)social struc- tural pluralism in which one finds shared languages and val- ues across different ethnic groups each participating in its. own separate social structure.)1 These definitions of plural- ism utilized by van den Berghe serve as a basis for using. the term “pluralism” as a measure of the day speech respondents’s atti- tudes about race relations between Blacks and Whites on good vocabulary, a. The idea of separationism and pluralism (both cultural. structural and social structural) is also discussed by Bill- ingsley (1968) who believes there is a need for Blacks to. build up their own communities; define themselves by new. “Black” standards different from the old White standards; and exercise power and phd thesis control over their own institutions.
and services within the essay vocabulary Black community. 1 Pierre van den Berghe, Race and essays day speech Racism, (New York: Wiley), Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton’s (1967) devel- oped definitions of separationism in their discussion of. Black Power which guided me in good, the formulation and use of. this concept in the study. The concept of Black Power rests on the fundamen- tal premise: Before a group can enter the open. society, it must close ranks.
By this we mean. that group solidarity is necessary before a group. can operate effectively from mla format cover letter a bargaining position. of strength in a pluralistic society.’ Thus, Carmichael and Hamilton define separationism as a nec- essary stage for essay vocabulary, the development of the critical Black community be- fore this group integrates into the “open society”. The idea of creating separate social structure and cul- tural structures as suggested by good vocabulary these authors serves to. clarify definitions of separationism/pluralism as they func- tion in how to grade, the dependent variable which tries to measure the. respondents’ ideologies concerning political and economic. relations between the Black and White communities. Conyers and Wallace (1976) embody the idea of Blacks.
working with Whites as a plausible political and economic. ideology about relations between the good vocabulary Black and White commu- nities. Their discussion focuses on representative integra- tion which is the integration of Black official into various. aspects of politics. They discuss problems which face these. Black officials who must persuade the White community that.
they are above issues of race and how to that they are representing. 2 Stokely Carmichael and :Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The. Politics of Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), all people and not just Black people. The idea of working. with Whites to form a common social structure and cultural.
structure as opposed to creating two separate social struc- tures and vocabulary cultural structures discussed in the writings of. Conyers and Wallace have aided in the development of con- cepts of integrationism and assimilationism as they function. The second set of dependent variables in this study tries. especially to measure the private versus schools essays extent to which the respondents. were motivated to benefit various social groups. The first. variable was designed to provide some idea of how interested. the respondents are in positively contributing to the Black. community relative to other social groups such as the White. community, their families, their occupations.
The second. variable in this category was designed to measure the nature. of the respondents’ attitudes not toward the essay vocabulary Black community. as an undifferentiated whole, but specifically toward mem- bers of the schools versus schools lower class in vocabulary, that community. Let us consider. these variables a little more closely. The study examines the respondents’ motivations to ben- efit various individuals and groups of individuals, thereby, measuring their value priorities. The study inquires about. the respondents’ motivations to benefit him/herself, and the.
following social groups: the family, the Black community, the White community, God and church, the U.S. society, the. non-White races of the world, and the human species as a. In an individual’s lifetime, it is necessary that the in- dividual focus his/her interests on benefiting a limited. number of things at a time because it is impossible to help. everyone and everything equally at the same time. There- fore, the individual must create a motivational hierachy. from which the phd thesis chennai individual can determine which social groups. are most important to essay benefit. Some individuals may place. the highest value on benefiting themselves or their fami- lies.
Others may value their occupational fields most high- ly. Private Versus Schools? Others may place God before everything else. Good? In still. other instances, one’s motivation to benefit either the U.S. society, the non-White races of the world or the human spec- ies as a whole could be most powerful. The desire to benefit the essays day speech Black community as previously. mentioned, is also included in the list of subjective moti- vations. However, this dependent variable did not differen- tiate the Black community in essay, any way because it tries to. measure the level of interest the respondents have in the. Black community as a whole in letter essay, comparison to essay other possible.
social groups as a whole. The variable discussed next tries. to make up for that. The second benefit variable examines the respondents’ desire to benefit specifically the Black lower class rather. than examining attitudes towards the Black community as a. whole.
This identification is useful because there is a. large segment of the Black community that is lower class and. as a result of the strong likelihood that respondents now. belong to classes higher and more powerful, politically and. economically, than the lower class largely because they have. graduated from Princeton University, it is interesting to. see what their attitudes are towards a large majority of. Blacks unlike themselves.
Feelings of obligation to improve. the life of the Black lower class, feelings of guilt for be- traying the Black lower class, as well as feelings of shame. or envy toward the Black lower class are investigated in. CHANGE OVER TIME IN THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES. By adding a measure for change over time the dependent. variables may be.studied both in their present perceived.
state and as they are perceived by the respondents to have. changed over speech self, time. The study accomlishes this measure of. change by dividing the respondents’ lives into vocabulary three peri- ods: “Pre-Princeton” (years before entering college), “Princeton” (years in college), and “Post-Princeton” (years. after graduating from college).3. It is mla format cover, important to realize that the change measured is. that which is perceived by the individual; an introspective. measure of change. Good Vocabulary? For example, the individual answering.
the question may believe that he/she has changed in no way. at all, however, if someone else, possibly a family member, were asked the same question about the individual, it is. possible that they would believe that the individual has. drastically changed over time. The measure for change over time is focused around.
Princeton because the study attempts to schools public examine the effects. of a Princeton education on Blacks. Respondents are repre- sentative of a small number of vocabulary, Blacks who attend predomi- nately White universities and they also represent an even. smaller portion of Blacks attending Ivy League universities. Unversities such as Princeton only began admitting Blacks in.
the 1960’s and presently Blacks comprise only about 10% of. total enrollment. Due to mla format cover letter essay the small number of Blacks in vocabulary, at- tendance, the critical thinking scenarios University does not often meet the social and. academic needs of its Black population because these univer- 3 For this study, change was computed for first, the essay Pre- Princeton to Princeton period (to be referred to as “Pre- to-Prin”) and then for essays, the Princeton to good essay Post-Princeton. period (to be referred to as “Prin-to-Post”). By calcu- lating the difference between the critical number indicated by re- spondents for Pre-Princeton point and the number indicated.
by respondents for the Princeton point, it was possible to. estimate the good essay vocabulary change during the Pre-to-Prin period. How To Grade? Like- wise the difference between the number indicated by the. respondents for Princeton point and the number indicated. for the Post-Princeton point shows the change during the. Princeton to Post-Princeton period.. sities focus their attentions on accommodating the White. students who comprise the majority of their enrollments. Dejoie discusses the claims of the negative effects of. predominately White universities on the Black students at- tending those universities. Although I was unable to find.
empirical support for Dejoie’s essay, I feel the ideas she. expressed are worth some discussion. Dejoie believes that “Institutional policies of good vocabulary, predomi- nately White universities have established practices which. favor the prefered groups and self essay have ranked priorities which. are meant to facilitate the tasks and improve the conditions. of White students while ignoring the needs of the Black stu- dents”.” Dr. Good? Dejoie goes on in her study to discuss the ef- fects of biased curricula which does not encourage,”…The.
contribution of Blacks, the study of Blacks, as a group”.5. She states that Departments of Black Studies are kept very. separate from mla format cover letter essay White university curricula. Dejoie also dis- cusses the negative aspects of social and non-academic ac- tivites at these schools: “Fraternities, sororities, home- coming activities and student government maintain the vocabulary White. status-quo. As in academic areas, the social aspects of. university life systematically follow the interests of the. White students–the majority group”.6. 4 Dr. Writing Chennai? Carolyn Dejoie, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in.
Predominately White Universities”, (source of article unknown). As a result of such biases, both academic and non-academ- ic, it is often difficult for good essay vocabulary, some Black students to adjust. to Princeton’s environment; and phd thesis writing chennai unfortunately there are very. few adequate support groups which provide some form of gui- dance and counsel for Black students having difficulty mak- ing the transition from vocabulary their home environments to self essay Prince- ton’s environment. Most students are dependent upon the use. of their own faculties to carry them through Princeton. Therefore, it is important to essay understand exactly what kinds. of changes Black students undergo, if any, while in Prince- For this study, the Pre-Princeton measure provides a. rough idea of what kinds of beliefs respondents held with.
respects to the dependent variables before entering college. and the Post-Princeton measure provides some idea of what. respondents’ beliefs are after college. Thus, if findings. show consistency between the thinking scenarios two periods (Pre-Princeton and. Post-Princeton), it may be possible that no change occured. as a result of essay, their Princeton education, or possibly in. this case, Princeton’s effect on the respondents’ beliefs. lasted for a short time and then no longer effected their. attitudes, thus making these effects temporary. If findings.
show some change through the periods, it may be possible. that their Princeton education influenced these changes. By measuring a number of independent variables, this. study will try to letter determine some correlates of the respon- dents’ interest in good, interacting with Blacks and Whites on an. individual and a community level, as well as their interest. to benefit various social groups; the Black community in. particular. Grade? The independent variables of this study include. the following: the actual time the respondents spent inter- acting with Blacks and Whites (to be referred to as “time”); and the racial make-up of the individual’s primary and good essay sec- ondary schools, in addition to the racial make-up of the in- dividual’s neighborhood; the race of the essay person whom the in- dividual most admired throughout his/her lifetime; the. individual’s image of God; the number of vocabulary, books in the indi- vidual’s home while growing up and presently; and the age.
and sex of the individual. Therefore, although this study. examines several independent variables, as will be shown in. a later chapter, only a few independent variables were found. to have strong relationships to the dependent variables. This section will discuss the independent variables found to. have the strongest relationship to the dependent variables.
first, and will discuss the private public independent variables of the. study which are found to good have no relationship to the depen- dent variables last. As will be demonstrated, the independent variables which. measure the actual time the indivdual spent with Blacks in. comparison to Whites throughout Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton years will be used as an private versus public essays independent. variable.
This variable is related to several other inde- pendent variables which measure the good racial make-up of the. individual’s neighborhood in which he/she grew up as well as. the individual’s primary and secondary schools. The individual’s past and present socio-economic status. is measured by the independent variable which asks for the. economic class in which the individual’s family belonged.
when growing up, in addition to the individual’s career mo- bility in comparison to the individual’s parents’ socio-eco- Another independent variable measured in phd thesis writing chennai, this study is. the race of the person whom the individual most admired. thoughout his/her lifetime. This variable enables one to.
examine the influence of the essay race of the individual’s role. models on their attitudes with respect to the dependent. variables of the study. A rough measure of literateness (tendency for an individ- ual to cover letter include reading and vocabulary writing as a major part of cover letter, his/ her life) is vocabulary, attempted by the variable examining the number. of books in the individuals home while growing up and pres- ently; and finally, age and private schools essays sex of the individual will also. The study contains a set of questions examining the essay vocabulary indi- vidual’s belief in God. Day Speech? This measure has been used in place. of the traditional measure which asks simply, “Do you be- lieve in God? “requiring a “yes” or “no” response or “Which. bests describes your religious beliefs? Check one: Protes- tant, Catholic, Jewish, Athiest, none of the good vocabulary above, other.” Instead of examining whether or not the individual believes.
in God, Piazza and Glock (1979) demonstrated that examining. the specific content of the individual’s beliefs as opposed. to measuring whether or not the phd thesis chennai individual believes in God. provides greater insight into the individual’s ideas about. God. The study found that when people answer “yes” or “no” to the traditional measure of Belief in God, they do not all. mean the same thing; their conception of God varies. “Most. Americans Believe in a God, but this does not necessarily. imply that they have the same thing in mind”.7.
In order to obtain a clearer idea of the content of good essay, the. individual’s religious beliefs, Piazza and Glock developed a. question that depends on three interrelated measures: the. extent to which the critical assumptions individual does or does not believe in a. God, the degree to which the individual believes God influ- ences the way society is organized, .and the degree to which. the individual believes God influences the individual’s own. 7 Piazza and vocabulary Glock, “Images of God and Their Social Mean- ing”, Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, The diagram below represents the original hypothesized.
relationships between the independent and dependent vari- Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivations to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. It is my belief, as seen by the above causal model, that. the independent variable which measures the actual time the. respondents have spent throughout the three periods of essays teachers day speech, their. lifetime with Blacks and good essay with Whites will have a strong ef- fect on the dependent variables of the study because the.
more the individual spends time with a group of people, the. more the individual will be familiar with that particular. group of mla format cover letter essay, people. For example, if the study shows that more. respondents spend time with Blacks than with Whites during. each period of his/her lifetime, the vocabulary study is likely to show. more respondents tend to be comfortable with Blacks than.
with Whites when interacting in various activities. I also further hypothesize that this sense of comfort. with Blacks will be greatest in all the activities measured. by this dependent variable except intellectual activites. Intellectually, Blacks may be more comfortable with Whites.
as a result of a greater amount of exposure to writing chennai Whites in essay, an. academic setting while at Princeton. Attending Princeton. has probably forced the respondents to compete intellectual- ly with Whites more than with Blacks and, thus, they have. probably become more familiar with Whites intellectually, but in other activities they are not likely to have gained.
familiarity with Whites if they did not spend time with. Whites in other activities besides intellectual ones. As a result of this greater sense of day speech, comfort felt by re- spondents with groups with whom they have spent more time, more respondents will be interested in benefiting these par- ticular groups in comparison to good essay others. Thus, the variable. measuring time spent with Blacks or Whites will also influ- ence the dependent variable measured by the respondents’ mo- tivation to thinking assumptions benefit various social groups.
For example, re- spondents who. Good Vocabulary? have spent time with Blacks are likely to how to grade essays be. more comfortable with Blacks and will, therefore, take a. great interest in benefiting this group in comparison to. other social groups. Consequently, it is vocabulary, also likely that. these respondents are motivated to how to grade essays benefit self, their loved. ones (who are also likely to be Black) and the Black commu- nity in comparison to good essay other social groups indicated by this. variable. While Blacks who are more comfortable with Whites. than with Blacks will probably be less interested in essays teachers, ben- efiting the Black community. The more respondents spend time with Blacks, the vocabulary more po- sitive and compassionate they will be in essays day speech, their attitudes to- wards lower class Black Americans, expressing strong feel- ings of vocabulary, obligation to take part in self critique, improving their lives. Feelings of obligation will also tend to be strong for.
Blacks who have spent more time with Whites because of a. general sense of compassion towards all underprivileged peo- ple. Essay? However, the feelings of pride in remaining apart from. their lives will be much stronger than their feelings of. pride in not remaining apart from their lives because these. respondents will show tendencies of phd thesis, downplaying the rela- tionship between themselves and other Blacks. The socio-economic status of the vocabulary respondents’ parents in.
addition to the individual’s career mobility are likely to. place these individual’s in social and economic arenas more. compatible with Whites, who make up a large segment of mid- dle class Americans, because they will be able to private schools versus schools afford all. of the good vocabulary luxuries typical of the White middle class. Thus, the higher the class and the more upward the phd thesis writing career mobili- ty, the more comfortable these Blacks will be with Whites. than with lower class Blacks.
Class and upward mobility. will probably influence the dependent variables in the same. way that time spent influenced the independent variables. My overall hypotheses described in this section focuses. on the group with whom the respondents identify most. Good Vocabulary? The. independent variables measure identification through such. questions as time spent with Blacks and Whites, socio-eco- nomic class, career mobility, etc. The individual’s degree.
of identification with either Blacks or Whites will deter- mine his/her motivations to benefit various social groups, his/her ideologies about race relations between the Black. and White communites, relative comfort felt by him/her when. interacting with Blacks and Whites, and his/her interest in. the Black lower class. Mla Format Cover Essay? The more the vocabulary individual identifies. with the Black community the more his attitudes will sway. towards a positive relationship with the Black community, however, the private versus essays more the individual identifies with the White.
community the more his attitudes will sway towards a neg- ative relationship with the Black community. This idea of. identification will be discussed further in the Summary and. Conclusions chapter of this study. The first part of the questionnaire, questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 measure the dependent variables, interaction and ben- efit attitudes. Essay Vocabulary? The second part of the essay questionnaire, ques- tions 2 and 6 through 19, measure the independent variables. Measures of the Dependent Variables.
Using a scale varying from good essay feeling “much more comfortable. with Blacks” through feeling “about equally comfortable with. Blacks and versus Whites”, to essay feeling “much more comfortable with. Whites”, the grade essays first question of the good essay vocabulary study asked respondents. to indicate the relative degree of comfort they felt while. interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activities. during the three life-periods. The activities referred to. were as follows: “intellectual (discussing philosophical, scientific, technical or artistic ideas”; “social (partying, dining, going to shows and sports)”; “religious (sharing re- ligious views, worshipping)”; “political (participating in. demonstrations, political campaigns and essays day speech organizations)”; “business (working on a paying job, as ‘subordinate and/or.
superordinate)”; “dating (including all specifically sexual. activities)”; “sports and athletics (including keeping in. shape and competing)”; and “in general (considering all ac- Question 3 asked alumni to rate the contributions to. their behavior, during the three life-periods, of motiva- tions to good essay vocabulary benefit various individuals and social groups. The. scale used for this question varied from speech critique essay feeling the motiva- tion made “no” contribution to their behavior through feel- ing the motivation made a “moderate” contribution to their. behavior to feeling the motivation made a “very strong” con- tribution to good their behavior. The individuals and social. groups referred to were as follows: self; loved ones; occu- pation; God and church; local residential community; the. Black American community; the USA as a society; the non-
White races of the world; and the human species as a whole. A similar scale was used to measure the respondents’ views during the three life-periods about relations between. the Black and White communities in the U.S. in question 4. In this scale, alternatives ranged from being “very strongly. separationist and/or pluralist” through being “undecided” to. being “very strongly integrationist and/or assimilationist. Question 5, the last measure of the dependent variables. asked respondents about how to grade essays, their personal attitudes towards. lower class Black Americans. This question was broken into. a series of statements to which the respondents were asked.
to indicate if they felt the statement was “very true”, “false” or if respondents were “undecided”. Essay Vocabulary? Some of the. statements measured were as follows: “I feel proud that I. have been strong enough to avoid remaining in or falling. into, lower class life”; “I feel obligated to help improve. their life”; “I feel they must help themselves”.
Measures of the Independent Variables. The second part of the questionnaire consists of fourteen. questions aimed at measuring the independent variables of. the study (e.g., how much time spent with Blacks vs. Whites).
These questions are very straightforward and try. to provide a general description of the respondents. Phd Thesis Writing? For. example, question 9 asks “Which of the following describes. your primary and secondary schools?” The choices are, all. or almost all Black, mostly Black, about good essay vocabulary, equally Black and. White, mostly White, and how to grade essays all or almost all White. This.
question, in addition to good essay others like question 5 which asked. for the predominate racial make-up of the neighborhood in. which the respondents grew up, provide a general idea of the. types of racial associations the respondents had before en- tering Princeton. Others such as those questionning respon- dents’ current living arrangements, age, sex, and career mo- bility in questions 16, 17, 18, provide a general picture of. the respondents’ ,present lifestyle. Questions 6, 7, and 8. measure the content of the respondents’ belief in God. These. questions asked the following: the respondents’ belief in. “God”, the influence of “God” in the respondents’ personal. life, and the respondents’ belief in the influence of “God” on the way society is organized.
These variables may be. combined to how to grade essays create new independent variables if desired. The sample of 400 Black Princeton alumni was obtained. from the Alumni Records Office at Princeton University. With the permission of Steve Dawson, the President of the. Association of Black Princeton Alumni (ABPA) and his office, the staff at the Alumni Records Office assisted the study by. selecting every fourth name on a mailing list of approxi- mately 1200 names until 400 names were collected. The questionnaire was sent through U.S. mail along with a. letter from the good essay President of the ABPA, encouraging subjects. to participate in the study, and a stamped, self-addressed. envelope for how to, the return of the questionnaire. The sample.
consists of Black Americans who graduated from Princeton’s. undergraduate program. The total number of good essay, returned ques- tionnaires was 89; thus, the response rate for this ques- tionnaire was approximately 22%. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION. DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE. The following section intends to provide an idea of how. the alumni responded to the questionnaire in general. In.
order to fully appreciate such a discussion one must keep in. mind the uniqueness of the individuals upon grade which this study. focuses. Essay? Not only are these respondents representative of. middle class Black Americans, but as some of the first. Blacks to be integrated into critical thinking scenarios Princeton University(infamous. for being racially the most conservative of the Ivy League. With 73% of respondents indicating that they were between.
the ages of 25 and 34 years (see table 1), it is also proba- ble that the good essay majority of the respondents were attending. Princeton during the 1970’s when affirmative action which. provided numerous opportunities for versus public, Blacks economically, ed- ucationally, and good essay occupationally was put into effect. For. the first time since reconstruction Blacks were beginning to. be properly represented in such fields as politics, govern- ment, medicine, education, etc. Self Critique Essay? The Black Power Movement.
was also strong during this time and essay as I have mentioned. earlier in the study, such leaders as Stokely Carmichael. were stressing the need for how to essays, Blacks to separate themselves. from White society in vocabulary, order to strengthen the Black communi- ty. Thus, it will be fascinating to find out what types of. Blacks decided to attend a prestigious, White university, and how this education may have affected them. General Attitudes of essays teachers, Respondents. In table 2, during the good vocabulary Pre-to-Prin period, the percentage. of respondents who reported spending more time interacting.
with Blacks than with Whites rose sharply from 43% to 61%. Yet, during the Prin-to-Post period, the essays day speech percentage of re- spondents spending time with Blacks dropped back down from. Data in. Essay Vocabulary? Table 2 only show percentages of respondents. spending time with Blacks and assumptions scenarios Whites for what shall be re- garded, for the purposes of this study, as particular points. in time, i.e., Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and good Post-Princeton.
One cannot know from these data, how individual respondents. changed between these points. This type of information is. available,: however, by examining Table 2a which shows the. percentage of day speech, respondents that (1) changed in the direction. of spending more time with Blacks, (2) made no change in. this respect, and good essay vocabulary (3) changed in the direction of phd thesis writing chennai, spending. more time with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin- to-Post periods.
Thus, Table 2a shows that during the good essay Pre- to-Prin period 46% of the respondents changed toward spend- ing more time with Blacks, while only 26% changed toward. spending more time with Whites. During the Prin-to-Post. period, however, the percentage of respondents who changed. toward spending more time with Blacks dropped drastically by.
Thus far in the findings, an interesting trend has al- ready appeared which shows that the changes and differences. in the letter essay tables are related to something that happened to the. respondents while at Princeton. Good Essay Vocabulary? This belief will be dis- cussed further in the conclusion section of the study. Just as the percentage of how to grade essays, respondents who spent more time. with Blacks than with Whites (and vice versa) appeared to. change during Princeton, the percentage of respondents who.
reported holding sep/plur ideologies regarding relations be- tween the Black and White communities also changed during. Princeton. In Table 3, from the good vocabulary Pre-Princeton point to chennai the. Post-Princeton point the essay percentage of respondents who held. sep/plur ideologies greatly increased from 26% to 40%. Yet, from the speech Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point this.
percentage of respondents declined from 40% to 31%. In Table 3a which shows the individual-level change in. ideologies over time, it is clear that 45% of the good essay vocabulary respon- dents changed toward becoming more sep/plur in comparison to. only 16% who changed toward becoming more int/assim during. the Pre-to-Prin period. Teachers? However, during the Prin-to-Post. period this 45% of respondents who changed toward becoming. more sep/plur dropped to 19%, while the 16% of respondents.
who changed toward becoming more int/assim rose to 32%. The data in tables 3 and 3a demonstrate that not only did. the percentage of respondents who spent more time with. Blacks than with Whites increase during Princeton, but there. was also an good vocabulary increase in cover, the percentage of respondents who. held sep/plur ideologies. Interestingly enough, the percentage of respondents who.
were motivated to good essay vocabulary benefit the Black community increased from. 46% at the Pre-Princeton point to 63% at essay the Princeton. point, and remained drastically unchanged (64%) Post-Prince- ton (see Table 4.3). The change over essay vocabulary, time as seen in Table 4.3a shows that the. 35% of the respondents becoming more motivated to benefit. the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin period decreased.
to 13% during the essays teachers day speech Prin-to-Post period, and similarily, the. 10% of respondents becoming less motivated to benefit the. Black community increased to good vocabulary 20% during the same two peri- ods. Thus, even though Table 4.3 shows roughly the same. percentage of critical scenarios, respondents were motivated to benefit the. Black community Post-Princeton as Princeton, Table 4.3a. shows that during the Pre-to-Prin period the individual-lev- el change was away from essay vocabulary this motivation.
Findings in tables 4 and 4.1 are roughly similar to find- ings in Table 4.3 for. respondents’ motivations to benefit. self and loved ones. However, for versus schools, individual-level change. tables 4a and 4.1a, a larger percentage of respondents be- came motivated to benefit self and good vocabulary loved ones during the. Pre-to-Prin and essays teachers day speech Prin-to-Post periods than they become less. motivated to benefit themselves and their loved ones. Thus, becoming increasingly motivated to benefit self and loved.
ones during both periods, but especially during the Prin-to- Post periods, and essay vocabulary especially toward benefiting self. Occupational motivations, in phd thesis chennai, table 4.2 show that during. Princeton, there was a larger percentage of respondents who. were not motivated to benefit their occupations in good essay, compari- son to the percentages of respondents who are moderately mo- tivated and writing motivated to benefit occupation. During Post-
Princeton, however, the percentage of respondents who were. strongly motivated to good benefit occupation increased greatly. Tables 4.4 and 4.4a which show the percentage of respon- dents who are motivated or were motivated to benefit God, and the individual-level change in this motivation respec- tively demonstrate an increase in phd thesis chennai, the percentage of respon- dents not motivated to essay vocabulary benefit God; during the Pre-to-Prin. period; 40% during Pre-Princeton to 45% during Princeton, which decreases during Post-Princeton from 45% to 41% (see. table 4.4).
Table 4.4a shows that during Pre-to-Prin period. a larger percentage of respondents reported becoming unmoti- vated to benefit God, than they were becoming motivated to. benefit God, but during the private versus essays Prin-to-Post period a larger. percentage of respondents reported becoming motivated to. benefit God than they were becoming not motivated to benefit. Tables 5 and 5.1 which show the percentage of respondents. feeling comfortable interacting with Blacks and essay vocabulary Whites in. both intellectual and social activities provide data which. also appear to change during Princeton in essays, comparison to Pre- Princeton and Post-Princeton.
Even though the change is not. drastic for intellectual activities, the 26% of the respon- dents who were comfortable with Blacks rose to vocabulary 37% from phd thesis writing Pre- Princeton to Princeton, and dropped back to 22% during the. Post-Princeton point. The pattern of group-level change for. social activities was similar: the good change from the essays Pre- Princeton to the Princeton point (64% and 73% felt more com- fortable with Blacks at good these times) was followed during the. Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point by essays an opposite. change (73%, and 62% felt comfortable with Blacks). In tables 5a we find that 36% of the respondents reported. becoming intellectually more comfortable with Blacks, in.
contrast to the 16% of the essay respondents who reported becoming. intellectually more comfortable with Whites during the self critique essay Pre- to-Prin period. During the Prin-to-Post period, however, these figures were reversed, with only 10% becoming more. comfortable with Blacks while 31% became more comfortable. Similar individual-level changes in feelings of good essay, comfort.
in social activities appear in critical assumptions, table 5.1a. The 31% of re- spondents who reported becoming comfortable with Blacks dur- ing the essay Pre-to-Prin period decreased to 10% during the Prin- to-Post period, and the 11% who reported becoming more. comfortable with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin period in- creased to 31% during the private versus schools Prin-to-Post period. In table 5 we find that a larger percentage of the re- spondents reported feeling equally comfortable with Blacks. and Whites in intellectual activities during each of the.
three periods than reported feeling more comfortable with. Blacks or more comfortable with Whites. Indeed, comparing. intellectual comfort (table 5) with social comfort, dating. comfort, political comfort, and general comfort respondents.
feel interacting with Blacks and Whites in tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and essay vocabulary 5.6, table 5 shows a greater percentage of phd thesis chennai, respon- dents who felt equally comfortable with Blacks and Whites. than in any of essay, these other tables (which is closer to feel- ing more comfort with Blacks) and also shows a smaller per- centage of respndents who felt comfortable with Blacks in. comparison to any of the other comfort tables. The latter. supports the essays teachers hypothesis that the comfort respondents feel. with Blacks will be greater in all activities accept intel- lectual ones. However, it must be noted that for vocabulary, business. and sporting (see tables 5.3 and 5.5), percentages of teachers day speech, re- spondents reporting comfort with Blacks are also small in. comparison to tables (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6). Background of the Respondents.
There was a split between the good essay vocabulary sexes; 60% of the respon- dents were male and 40% were female (see table 6). Fifty- one percent of the respondents were raised in homes which. were lower middle class; while 24% of the respondents were. raised in chennai, lower or under class households, and 24% were. raised in upper to upper middle class households (see table.
Table 8 shows that reading and writing became more apart. of the respondents’ lives after they left Princeton. Good? The. seventy-four percent of respondents who indicated having 51. to over how to grade essays, 100 books in their homes during the time they were. growing up increased to good essay 89%, while the 25% of respondents. indicating living in homes with less than 50 books while. growing up decreased to 11%. Sixty-five percent of respondents said they grew up in.
all or mostly Black neighborhoods, 20% said they grew up in. all or mostly White neighborhoods, and 15% of the respon- dents reported growing up in neighborhoods that were equally. Black and White. Grade? Fifty-one percent of the good vocabulary respondents re- ported that they grew up in cities, 40% grew up in suburbs, and only 9% reported growing up on a farm or in “open coun- Even though more respondents reported growing up in Black. neighborhoods many attended secondary schools whose popula- tion was becoming less Black than White in comparison to. their primary schools. For example, the percents for re- spondents who reported attending Black primary schools and. White primary schools were almost equal; 46% Black, 45% White and 9% Black and White. However, for grade essays, the secondary.
schools, the percent of respondents reporting that they at- tended White schools increased to vocabulary 63%, while the percent of. respondents who reported they attended Black schools dropped. to 24%, and 13% attended schools that were equally Black and. Although the schools the respondents attended during the. Pre-Princeton point became more White than Black, this trend.
did not appear with respect to their present living arrange- ments. Fifty-four percent of self critique, respondents reported living. with one or more Blacks, only essay 5% reported living with one or. more Whites, 4% reported living with one or more Blacks and. Whites, and 38% lived alone. At all three times investigated in this study, respon- dents reported admiring Blacks more than Whites. During the. Pre-Princeton point, 58% reported admiring a relative, while. 30% reported admiring a Black friend, or Black fictional or. non-fictional person; and only 11% reported admiring a White.
friend, or White fictional or non-fictional person. Thinking? During. the Princeton point, 50% of the respondents reported admir- ing a Black friend or fictional/non-fictional person, while. 39% reported admiring a relative, and good essay once again, only 10% reported admiring a White friend or fictional/non-fictional. person.
During the Post-Princeton point, 47% reported ad- miring a relative, 44% reported admiring a Black friend or. fictional/non-fictional person, and essays day speech 9% reported admiring a. White friend or fictional/non-fictional friend (see table. Seventy-one percent of the respondents reported being in. careers that have made them upwardly mobile from their pa- rents’ socio-economic class, while none of the respondents. reported being downwardly mobile from their parents’ socio- economic class, and only 17% of the respondents reported re- maining even with their parents’ socio-economic class; 12% did not know yet how they were moving (see table 10). With respect to belief in God, it appears that their gen- eral belief in some kind of God was relatively high.
Sixty- two percent of the respondents said they definitely believe. in God, while only 6% reported that they do not believe in. God; .24% are uncomfortable with the word “God” but believe. in a.transcendent force; and 9% either do not know or are. uncertain.
Seventy-one percent of the good respondents believe. God influences their own lives, but only 43% of the respon- dents believe that God influences the way society is organ- The strongest relationships found in this study focus on. two variables. Writing Chennai? The amount of good essay vocabulary, time the respondents spent. with Blacks in comparison to Whites over the three periods. of the respondents’ lifetimes was found to be stongly relat- ed to most of the dependent variables. However, it was also. found that the ideologies held by the respondents about de- sirable race relations between the letter Black and essay vocabulary White communi- ties was also strongly related to most of the dependent. variables. Thus, it was helpful to determine which of these.
variables was more closely related to the dependent vari- Time vs. Ideologies. In order to determine which came first, time or ideolo- gies, a new analysis was performed to obtain the relation- ships in tables 11-11.3. Tables 11 and 11.2 show how close- ly time is related to.ideologies, while tables 11.1 and 11.3. show how closely ideologies is related to private versus public essays time. This analy- sis is good, done to determine whether time is a better predictor. of ideologies or whether ideologies is a better predictor of. time.
The comparison of the relationships in these tables. demonstrate that there is no great difference between them. For example, the mla format cover letter difference between the 62% of respondents. who reported spending time with Blacks and holding sep/plur. ideologies and the 48% of respondents who reported spending. time with Whites and holding sep/plur ideologies in good essay vocabulary, Table 11. was not much smaller than the difference between the 74% of. respondents who reported holding sep/plur ideologies and. spending time with Blacks and the 56% who reported holding.
int/assim ideologies and spending time with Blacks in Table. 11.1. Thus, it is not possible to determine which variable. is a better predictor of the other. Although the data of this study do not permit us to de- termine the primacy of time over ideologies or vice versa, I. have chosen to examine time as the essays teachers major controlling vari- able of the study as demonstrated by the causal model in di- agram 1. Thus, it is my hypothesis that the actual time the. respondents spent with Blacks and vocabulary Whites throughout the. three periods of their lifetime will have a strong effect on. the dependent variables of the mla format cover letter study. Time vs. General Comfort and good vocabulary Motivation to Black Community.
Support for the hypothesis discussed in the previous. paragraph may be found in the relationships between change. in time and change in general comfort the respondents feel. when interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activ- ates. In Table 12, there is a strong relationship between. change in time from the Pre-to-Prin period and change in. “general comfort” for the same period.
The more respondents. increased the letter essay time they spent with Blacks during this peri- od, the more comfortable respondents became, in good essay vocabulary, general, with Blacks; and the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Whites during this period, the essay more comfor- table respondents became, in general, with Whites. This. same positive relationship is essay vocabulary, also shown in Table 12.1 for. the period Prin-to-Post. The motivation to benefit the Black community is also in- fluenced by time (see table 13).
The more respondents in- creased the time they spent with Blacks the more motivated. they became to benefit the Black community; and the more the. respondents spent time with Whites, the more unmotivated the. respondents became to benefit the Black community. The relationship between change in time and change in mo- tivation to benefit the Black community for Prin-to-Post. period in Table 13.1 is more ambiguous than the essays other rela- tionships for time. A strong relationship is indicated in. the top portion of the table which shows that the vocabulary more re- spondents began spending time with Blacks, the more respon- dents became motivated to benefit the phd thesis chennai Black community. Yet, the relationship in the bottom portion of the table shows no. relationship at all.
It is possible that the essay vocabulary disappearance of this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the table is private schools public, correlated to the. inability to determine which of the variables, time or. ideologies, is essay vocabulary, more closely related to the dependent vari- ables. As opposed to Table 13.1, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the relationship between ideologies and motiva- tion to benefit the critical assumptions scenarios Black community provides a less ambigu- ous finding. In these tables, it is clear that for both the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods there is a strong posi- tive relationship which shows that the more respondents be- came sep/plur, the more respondents would become motivated. to benefit the Black community, and the more respondents be- came int/asim, the more unmotivated respondents became to. benefit the Black community.
Thus, for certain cases and. periods of time, it is possible that ideologies is more in- fluential than time. Association Between Time and Ideologies. The relationship between change in time and change in. ideologies is demonstrated by tables 11-14.1. For each time. period, it was found that the more respondents increased the. time they spent with Blacks, the more they became sep/plur; and the more the respondents increased time they spent with.
Whites, the more respondents became int/assim. Thus, it may. be understood that the good vocabulary more respondents increased the essays teachers day speech time. they spent with Blacks or Whites greatly influenced their. sense of comfort with Blacks and Whites, in general, in ad- dition to influencing their desire to benefit the essay vocabulary Black com- munity, and their ideologies. Before discussing the essay relationship between ideologies and. the other dependent variables of the study, let us examine.
the actual percentage of respondents spending time interact- ing with Blacks and Whites in essay, the three periods in order to. gain an understanding of how these respondents’ attitudes. may have been affected by the change in time. Time and its Correlates. The frequencies from the data (see tables 2 and 2a) indi- cate that a smaller percentage of respondents spent time. with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to Prince- ton.
During Princeton, this percentage increased greatly, but declined during Post-Princeton. The percentages in mla format cover letter essay, tables 2 and 2a, in addition to the. relationships between change in essay vocabulary, time and cover letter the dependent vari- ables in tables 12-14.1 show interesting findings about the. respondents. It is clear that during Princeton, as a result. of the greatly increased percentage of respondents who spent. more time with Blacks than with Whites, it is very likely. that the percentage of vocabulary, respondents who’indicated that they.
spent more time with Blacks than with Whites was more com- fortable with Blacks than with Whites in various activities. while at mla format cover essay Princeton in comparison to vocabulary before entering Prince- ton and letter essay also in comparison to the percentage of respondents. who spent more time with Whites or equal time with Blacks. Tables 15-16.1 support this idea by good essay vocabulary examining relation- ships between change in time and phd thesis writing two activities in particu- lar, namely intellectual and social ones. The tables demon- strate that for both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents increased the time they spent. with Blacks, the more comfortable respondents became while.
engaging in intellectual and social activities with Blacks. and the less comfortable they became with Whites. Good? The more. respondents increased time spent with Whites, the more com- fortable respondents became while engaging in grade, intellectual. and social activities with Whites and the less they became. comfortable with Blacks. Thus, the respondents who spent.
more time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period were un- comfortable when interacting with Whites in social and essay inte- Tables 14 and 14.1 show that during the teachers day speech Pre-to-Prin peri- od, respondents’ ideologies became sep/plur as opposed to. int/assim. Therefore, not only good did respondents who began. spending time with Blacks prefer interacting with Blacks in.
comparison to how to grade Whites on a’ one-to-one basis, but they in- creasingly held ideologies which support sep/plur. This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the high percentage of. respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the. Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to being. forced to good essay vocabulary do so as a result of discrimination on critical assumptions scenarios, the part of. the University forcing Blacks and Whites apart.
Also, given relationships shown in tables 13 and 13.1, it. may be seen that the respondents who increased time spent. with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period also became more. motivated to vocabulary benefit the Black community than respondents. who increased the time they spent with Whites. As we have seen, the writing findings discussed in the previous. paragraphs seem to vocabulary support the hypothesis that respondents. who were increasing the time spent with Blacks were becoming. more attached to the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin.
period both in their individual interactions and in their. political ideologies about Black and White relations on a. community level. Respondents who were increasing time spent. with Blacks were also becoming interested in how to, positively con- tributing to the Black community. As a result of the vocabulary huge decline in the percentage of re- spondents who began increasing time spent with Blacks during. the Prin-to-Post period demonstrated earlier in Table 2, it. seems probable that as respondents became. attached to mla format the. White community with respects to their attitudes, they be- came detached from the good Black community. Evidence to support the hypothesis previously discussed. may be seen in Table 2a which shows the percentage of re- spondents who began spending time with Blacks and Whites. During the Prin-to-Post period, as respondents reported.
spending time with Whites (an increased from private schools essays 26% to 31%), respondents also began spending less time with Blacks (a de- crease from vocabulary 61% to 39%). However, it must be noted that these findings could be. the result of the mla format essay questionnaire design. Respondents were. asked to essay rate their attitudes by comparing Blacks and. Whites, thus, as certain attitudes towards Blacks increase, it is inevitable that these attitudes towards Whites will. decrease and vice versa.
Association Between Ideologies and cover Schools Attended. The study tries to examine ideologies as it relates to. the dependent variables. Good Essay? Table 17 demonstrates change in. ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin period is not only related. to change in time but also to another independent variable, namely, “schools attended”, which measures change in schools essays, the ra- cial make-up of the primary and secondary schools attended. by the respondents before Princeton. The variable, schools attended, was created by vocabulary calculat- ing the difference between the racial make-ups of each re- spondents’ primary school and his/her secondary school. “Schools attended” was crosstabulated with ideologies only.
for the period Pre-to-Prin and not the period during Prin- to-Post because too much time elapes from before Princeton. and after Princeton to consider any relationship between. these two variables. Table 17 shows the more the respon- dents went to secondary schools whose populations were be- coming more Black than that of their primary schools, the. more the respondents would become sep/plur; and the more re- spondents went to speech critique secondary schools whose populations were. becoming more White than that of their primary schools, the.
more the respondents would become int/assim. Thus, ideolo- gies during Princeton are not only related to time during. Pre-Princeton, but to a combination of good essay, time and schools at- Associations between Ideologies and the Dependent Variables. It is my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to critical thinking scenarios attitudes, comforts, and. motivations of respondents.
However, tables 18 and 18.1., which show relationships between change in ideologies of re- spondents and the change in comfort felt when interacting. with Blacks and Whites in general on good essay, an individual level for. the periods Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post, indicate an unex- pected finding. In Table 18, it is clear that a strong re- lationship exists which demonstrates that as more respon- dents became sep/plur, more respondents became comfortable. with Blacks in cover, general; and as more respondents became int/ assim, more respondents became comfortable with Whites in. general. This table shows the good variables moving together, yet, after Princeton, these variables move in different di- rections. Table 18.1 shows that the previous relationship. In order to explain this disappearance it would be help- ful to essays teachers find some third variable having the same relationship. to ideologies and to general comfort during the Pre-to-Prin. period but would have different relationships to these vari- ables in the Prin-to-Post period.
Unfortunately, I have. been unable to find such a variable in this study. Ideolo- gies and “general comfort” were crosstabulated with every. variable in this study and no such relationship occurred to. explain the disappearance.
Thus, in good vocabulary, this instance, I will. not venture to speculate beyond the schools essays limits of vocabulary, my data. Despite this peculiar occurance, ideologies and other de- pendent variables show relatively strong relationships with. few inconsistencies. Critical Thinking? For example, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the more respondents became sep/plur, during the. Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became motivated to. benefit the Black community; and the more int/assim they be- came, the more unmotivated they became to benefit the essay vocabulary Black. One possible explanation for this occurance may be that. both integrationist and separationist strive to benefit the.
Black community because supporters of these ideologies may. believe that their ideologies best serve to benefit the. Black community. However, it is possible that while a Black. separationist may be solely concerned with the particular. community he/she chooses to work within, a Black integra- tionist may be equally concerned with the phd thesis writing Black and White. communities, thus must divide his/her motivations between. these communities. In essense, a Black integrationist who. is dividing motivations between two groups is less concerned. with benefiting the Black community specifically than a.
Black separationist who is placing his/her energies into the. Black community only. Such reasoning could account for the. findings which show separationists becoming more motivated. to benefit the Black community in comparison to integration- With respect to their attitudes towards the Black lower.
class, during both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the good essay more respondents became sep/plur, the letter more re- spondents became obligated to help improve the good essay vocabulary lives of private schools schools, the. Black lower class (see tables 20 and 20.1). However, the. relationship between the change in ideologies during the. Prin-to-Post period and good the change in feeling of obligation. to the Black lower class in table 20.1 is much weaker than.
the relationship during the Pre-to-Prin period. Relationships in the previous tables could be the result. of the respondents’ increased occupational motivation during. the Prin-to-Post period as discussed earlier. This table. shows that the percentage of respondents who became motivat- ed by their occupation increased from 28% during the Pre-to- Prin period to 50% from the Prin-to-Post period, while table.
4.3a shows that more respondents lost their motivation to. benefit the Black community during the Prin-to-Post period. These findings make it possible to speculate that at the. Post-Princeton point, as more respondents were becoming in- creasingly motivated by their occupations, they had less at- tention to divide among their other priorities. As a re- sult, some of their motivations to the Black community may. have become withdrawn in order to place more emphasis on how to grade, oc- cupational attainments. Consequently, their feelings of essay vocabulary, ob- ligation to the Black lower class were decreased as well. Tables 21 and 21.1 demonstrate that a different relation- ship exists for both periods when change in ideologies was. crosstabulated with the chennai feeling of pride the respondents. have in avoiding remaining in essay vocabulary, or falling into the life of. the Black lower class.
It was found that the more respon- dents became int/assim, the more proud they were of this. fact; and the more sep/plur they became, the less proud they. were. But, it should be noted that the relationship during. the Pre-to-Prin period, in this case, is a little weaker.
than the Prin-to-Post period relationship. With some speculation, these findings may be attributed. to the idea that in order for an individual to be int/assim, that individual may hold the self critique essay belief that Blacks, as a whole, should strive to become integrated into , as opposed to seg- regated away from the White community, while a Black who is. sep/plur may believe in striving for the opposite goal. Therefore, an int/assim may not be achieving his/her goals. by falling into a life with other Blacks, and thus, be more. proud of avoiding their life. A sep/plur, however, may feel. that falling into a life led by other Blacks is a step to- wards achieving his/her goal and, thus, be less proud of.
avoiding the life of the Black lower class. When the relationship between change in ideologies and. guilt of vocabulary, betraying the critical thinking scenarios Black lower class is analyzed in ta- bles 22 and 22.1, it is evident that respondents who became. sep/plur, felt more guilt of betrayal and those who became. more int/assim, felt less guilt. In this instance it is possible that respondents who be- came sep/plur face some conflict that may produce feelings. of guilt for betraying the good essay Black community. Self Essay? This conflict. may result from actively integrating in a predominately. White environment by attending Princeton.
If separtist. ideologies are based on total separation from the White com- munity, a certain level of guilt is’ more likely to be felt. by a respondent who became sep/plur than by essay vocabulary those who became. int/assim. An integrationist is not opposing any of his/her. ideologies by letter essay attending Princeton. On the other hand, the. respondent is acting in good essay, the best interest of integrationist.
ideologies and, thus, is faced with no conflict to cause. feelings of guilt. Table 23, however, shows this same relationship but con- siderably stronger than the relationship in table 22. For. the Pre-to-Prin period, when respondents were asked if they.
felt that the Black lower class must help themselves, a very. weak relationship showing that the more sep/plur the respon- dents became, the more the respondents felt that the Black. lower class must help themselves appeared; and the more int/ assim they became, the grade essays more they felt that the Black lower. class must not help themselves. This same relationship was. present for vocabulary, the Prin-to-Post period in Table 23.1, but it. has become stronger. Integrationist and separationist ideologies both encour- age the active participation of the Black community in work- ing towards self-help. Integrationism and self separtionism may. both be ways for the Black lower class to help themselves. Thus, it is good essay vocabulary, not surprising that the idea of self-help by the.
lower class continued to increase through the life periods. of the how to grade respondents. Finally, tables 24 and 24.1 demonstate a strong relation- ship for good, the change in ideologies during the speech Pre-to-Prin. period and the feeling that the situation of the Black lower. class is hopeless, such that the more respondents became.
sep/plur, the more respondents felt hopeless; and the more. respondents became int/assim, the good less hopeless they felt., However, once again, this relationship was very weak for the. same relationship in the Prin-to-Post Table 24.1. My speculation for essays teachers, this finding is based on the possibil- ity that a separationist is good essay vocabulary, more likely to schools versus public have a realistic. impression of the plight of the Black lower class because of. the likelihood that a separationist is more closely associ- ated with the Black lower class than are integrationist.
By. actually working with the Black lower class or within their. communities as a result of their ideologies, a separationist. may better understand the desparation of their situation and. feel more hopeless about vocabulary, a resolution as opposed to an inte- grationist who is ignorant to their plight. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. The original hypotheses of the study as demonstrated ear- lier by the causal models in diagram 1, stated that time. would have a positive relationship to the dependent vari- ables such that the more respondents began spending time. with Blacks, the more they would become attached to Black. individuals and the Black community in several respects; and. the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the.
more they would be attached to writing chennai Whites in several respects. The findings as demonstrated by the revised causal models. below in diagrams 2 and good essay vocabulary 3, were not far off from these orig- REVISED CAUSAL MODEL. Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivation to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the letter essay Black lower class. The causal model in diagram 2 demonstrates that there is. still a positive relationship between time and the dependent.
variables. Essay Vocabulary? Ideologies, however, was found to have the same. relationship to the dependent variables. Unfortunately, the. data do not provide a way of determining whether time or. ideologies is more closely related to the dependent vari- ables for thinking assumptions, reasons discussed earlier.
However, I have chosen. to examine the time respondents spent with Blacks and Whites. as it determines later ideologies and attitudes because I am. more interested in this relationship as opposed to examining. how ideologies determines time. The causal model in diagram 3 demonstrates that the study. examines the respondents who spent time interacting with.
Blacks and Whites on an individual level as the major causal. variable of the study. As discussed earlier, the time spent. has a positive relationship to all the dependent variables. of the study which show that the more respondents began. spending time with Blacks, the more respondents became sep/ plur and.the more respondents became attached and interested. in the good vocabulary Black community. However, the more respondents began. spending time with Whites, the more they became attached to. and interested in the White community. The causal model goes on to argue that the relationships.
between ideologies and the variables which measure attit- dues, i.e., towards the Black lower class, comfort felt on. an individual level with Blacks and Whites , and the desire. to benefit the Black community is as follows: the schools versus schools essays more re- spondent became sep/plur, the good more respondents became com- fortable with Blacks, the more respondents became motivated. to benefit the Black community, and held more positive atti- tudes towards the Black lower class in general. The more. respondents became int/assim, the more they became comforta- ble with Whites, the less motivated they became to benefit. the Black community, and the less positive their attitudes. became towards the Black lower class in general. The major conclusion to be drawn from the findings of the. study is as follows: despite the phd thesis chennai respondents’ sense of com- fort with Blacks and Whites, their motivation to benefit the. Black community, or their attitudes towards the Black lower.
class before Princeton, more respondents tended to identify. with Blacks during Princeton in every measured respect. However, after Princeton this identification decreased dras- tically. Before discussing this finding in more detail, I. feel it is necessary to clarify this idea of identification. as it is used in this study. When I first set out to examine the attitudes of the. respondents towards Blacks and Whites, I believed that the. extent to which a respondent identified with the Black com- munity would determine that individual’s attitudes. In de- fining the concept of identification or the ability to. identify with the Black community, I based my definition on.
the premise that there is a distinctive Black culture very. different from White culture. Elements of Black culture. which make it unique from White culture such as its music, its language, the struggles and good essay a “consciousness” shared by. its people may be attributed to the injustices and cover oppres- sions suffered by this race of people which are not compara- ble to the experiences of good essay vocabulary, any other race of people through. this country’s history. However, with the essays teachers increasing inte- gration of Blacks into the mainstream society, many “inte- grated Blacks” have lost touch with the Black culture in.
their attempts to become adjusted and comfortable in their. new culture–the White culture. Some of good vocabulary, these Blacks are no. longer able to how to grade essays enjoy the qualities which make Black culture. so unique or are unable to openly share their culture with. other Blacks because they have become so far removed from. these experiences and, in some instances, ashamed of them. as a result of their integration. There are other Blacks who, in essay, being integrated have not. lost touch. They have maintained an awareness and a sincere.
appreciation for the uniqueness of the Black culture. Un- like those who have lost touch, these Blacks have not become. ashamed of Black culture. It is with these ideas that I formulated my conception of. identifying with the Black community. Schools Essays? Thus, I believe that.
a respondent who did not identify with the essay Black community. would be less likely to spend time with Blacks and speech self be less. motivated to benefit the good vocabulary Black community. However I encoun- tered several problems following this line of reasoning. I now believe it is incorrect to assume that just because. a Black individual does not enjoy or choose to participate. in the culture of his people, that that individual is not. interested in benefiting that group of people. For example, a Black may not enjoy the music, or language of the Black.
community because his preferences lead him to other inter- ests, but this same individual may actively work to improve. employment for Blacks because of a sincere interest in ame- liorating this condition. Therefore, the inability to. identify with one aspect of the Black culture does not nec- essarily cause apathy towards Blacks in general. Also, a Black individual may be unable to understand or. appreciate the Black culture because that individual was not. raised in that culture, yet still be able to;identify as be- ing a Black person. For example, a Black person may have. all White friends and prefer these friends and speech self critique essay their activi- ties to those with Blacks without the good essay individual believing.
that he/she is essays teachers day speech, White. It is possible that the individual. identifies with being a Black person and chooses to benefit. the Black community because he/she is a Black person, but. does not necessarily identify with the vocabulary culture. Thus, defining identification as an appreciation and an. enjoyment found in the Black culture is not complete enough. for the purposes of the study. However, through my study I. was able to redefine the concept of identification. Earlier in the discussion of “comfort” in the Hypothesis.
Chapter, the concept of familiarity was introduced. Until. this point familiarity only served to explain the role of. comfort in this study. However, after completion of my. study, it is clear to me that familiarity or the grade essays extent to. which respondents are familiar with the Black community is. helpful in redefining the concept of identification. It is.
my belief that a respondent’s sense of familiarity with the. Black community or with the White community will result in. the respondent’s inclination to become attached to essay Blacks or. Whites on an individual and on a community level. By measuring relative comfort respondents feel interact- ing with Blacks and writing chennai with Whites as well as the time spent. actually interacting with Blacks and Whites, the respondents.
ideologies, motivations, and ‘ attitudes towards the Black. lower class, the study is providing an idea of the respon- dents’ familiarity with Blacks and Whites, which will influ- ence the extent to essay vocabulary which respondents are attached to Blacks. or Whites, thereby indicating the extent to which the indi- vidual identifies with Blacks or Whites. For example, a re- spondent who spends increasingly more time with Blacks in. comparison to Whites or feels comfort with Blacks in critical thinking assumptions scenarios, compar- ison to Whites or holds ideologies that are sep/plur rather. than int/assim, or is more motivated to benefit the Black. community as opposed to being unmotivated, or is essay vocabulary, more obli- gated to thinking assumptions the Black lower class, is more likely to good essay vocabulary be famil- iar with Blacks as opposed to Whites, be more inclined to. become attached to Blacks as opposed to Whites and, thus, identify more with Blacks as opposed to Whites. Many questions arise from these findings. For instance, why did some respondents tend to become more attached and.
interested in the Black community during Princeton? What. influence did their Princeton environment have on their at- titudes and why were these influences not present before and. after Princeton? The findings provided by this study leave. these questions unanswered because the questionnaire was not. designed to speech essay investigate these surprising occurances. Good Essay Vocabulary? How- ever, it is possible to develop new hypotheses which might. explain these findings and suggest methods for testing them.
One possible hypothesis explaining why some respondents. become attached to Blacks during Princeton was derived from. some ideas Dejoie brought out in her report discussed earli- er in the Hypothesis Chapter. Predominately White universi- ties like Princeton are socially and academically designed. to cater to the needs of the White students comprising the. bulk of their enrollments. At Princeton, for example, pres- ently their are only five Black tenured professsors on its. faculty; and the program of mla format, Afro-American studies is good essay, one of. the smallest and assumptions most understaffed departments in the Uni- versity only good essay offering four courses during the spring semes- ter of 1985; and there is only one major University recog- nized organization on campus designed specifically for self critique essay, the. intellectual and social interests of Blacks and other Third.
Activities organized by University groups such as Student. Government rarely, if ever, take into good vocabulary account the diverse. interests which exist at a University that is critical assumptions scenarios, not 100% White. If Black students want to essay vocabulary have certain speakers or. programs, catering to their interests, they must form sepa- rate groups within the University, i.e., the Organization of.
Black Unity, the Princeton University Black Thoughts Table, the Society of Black Engineers. Several Black students. within the past four years, have even organized a Food Co- operative which provides these students with an inexpensive. alternative to phd thesis writing University eating facilities and Eating Clubs. which are very expensive by comparison. Thus, it is not.
surprising that, in their attempts to vocabulary satisfy their own in- tellectual, social, and also economic needs, some respon- dents became attached to Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin peri- In order to study this hypothesis which, in essence, is. saying that the more respondents became attached to Blacks. during the critical thinking Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became. dissatisfied with the good vocabulary social and critical thinking scenarios academic environment at.
Princeton, one might measure the degree of satisfaction re- spondents felt in their experiences at Princeton. Good Essay Vocabulary? By creat- ing a scale from being “very satisfied” to being “not satis- fied at private versus schools all”, respondents could be asked to essay rate numerous. Princeton experiences, i.e., social life, academic diversi- ty, eating options, and in general on this scale. Teachers? From such. a question, one could discover how satisfied Blacks were at.
Princeton and what satisfied them most and vocabulary least. Another possible hypothesis created from this study’s. findings explaining why respondents became attached to. Blacks at Princeton is private versus schools essays, that the mood of Black students at. Princeton during the good time that most of the respondents were. attending Princeton was more separationist. As discussed.
earlier, most respondents were attending Princeton during. the 70’s, at a time when the Black Power Movement was still. influencing the attitudes of many Blacks. It is possible that Black individuals either chose to or. felt pressured to come together with other Blacks on campus. because of the belief that Blacks must join in solidarity to. combat a White oppressor. As the phd thesis writing chennai few Blacks in a White en- vironment it is understandable that respondents might have. felt a need to look out for one another.
One can contrast the mood of the essay vocabulary campus years ago and the. level of attachment to phd thesis Blacks to that of the present mood of. the campus, which is more pro-integrationist, and the level. of attachment to Blacks. Presently, with the Black Power. Movement behind us and with the implementation of CURL. (College Undergraduate Residential Life), the mood of the. campus has been shifted in such a way that Black students. are discouraged from forming separate groups because of a. fear that they are segregating themselves from mainstream.
campus life by doing so. Thus, if a survey were to be made. today of the level of Black involvement in minority organi- zations and their involvement in campus organizations, there. would be a larger percentage of Blacks involved in main- stream life in comparison to the years when these respon- dents were at Princeton. But, on the other hand, the per- centage of involvement in good essay vocabulary, Third World organizations would be.
much lower now than then. It appears, that the present mood. of the campus is one that encourages the grade integration and as- similation of Blacks, whereas the mood of the vocabulary campus and. even society in general several years ago encouraged the. separation of Blacks. Thus, the critical assumptions scenarios mood of the time may have. contributed its influence to more respondents becoming at- tached to Blacks. So far, I have discussed a few characteristics of good vocabulary, Prince- ton and the time at which respondents were attending the. University which may account for some of the main findings. of this study. However, it is still necessary to discuss.
why the respondents’ Princeton experiences were different. from their Pre and Post-Princeton experiences. It is impor- tant to remember that before Princeton, a large percentage. of the respondents were attending secondary schools whose. population was more heavily White in comparison to their. After Princeton, one may speculate that respondents were. also in predominately White work environments or attending. graduate or professional schools that were also predominate- ly White.
Thus, a discussion of the differences between. these experiences in predominately White environments and. Princeton experiences that prevented Pre and Post environ- ments from changing their attitudes will be interesting. What I believe distinguishes Pre-Princeton from Princeton. experiences accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to.
identify more with Blacks during Princeton, is the presence. of a support group, i.e., family or home, during Pre-Prince- ton that was absent during Princeton. During Pre-Princeton. if respondents became frustrated or discouraged as a result. of their experiences in a predominately White academic envi- ronment the respondents could always escape from essays these frus- trations when they left these environments to go home. Thus, respondents’ families and homelives provide relief. from any problems or tensions encountered in predominately. White environments. Good? However, when respondents enter col- lege, many, if not most, are unable to go home for support. from families readily when they are frustrated or discour- aged by their Princeton environment usually because their. familiies are far from them and telephoning home may be re- stricted because of the expense.
Thus, in phd thesis writing chennai, their attempts to. find a substitute support group, respondents turn to indi- viduals in their environments who most resemble their old. support groups; individuals who share the same problems as. themselves and understand their complaints. Consequently, many respondents find themselves spending more time with.
other Blacks while at Princeton because it is good, likely that. other Blacks are more sensitive to how to grade respondents’ problems, and it is also likely that respondents are identifying more. What distinguishes Post-Princeton from Princeton experi- ences, accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to good essay identi- fy more with Blacks during Princeton are the respondents’ increased motivations to cover essay benefit their occupations. Assum- ing that most of these respondents are working or attending. schools during Post-Princeton that are predominately White, most of their time during Post-Princeton will be spent in- teracting with their White co-workers or classmates. Thus, the increasing amount of time spent with Whites resulting.
from the respondents’ occupational pursuits can account for. the increased attachment to Whites during Post-Princeton. In essence, in good vocabulary, order to advance in their careers or post- graduate studies, respondents realize they must be able to. get along with their co-workers or classmates who are likely. to be White, thereby identifying more with Whites. I began this study questionning my own attitudes as a fu- ture alumnus. I wondered whether or not my education at. Princeton would affect my identification with the Black com- munity.
I hoped that these findings would help me conclude. that despite the high degree of day speech, identification with Whites. as a result of the essay educational and occupational path that. Black Princeton alumni follow, the mla format letter alumni would still main- tain a certain level of identification with the essay vocabulary Black commu- nity. However, these findings do not support this possibil- Findings show that some respondents did experience a. change in their attitudes over the periods of time indicated. in this study. Self? By studying respondents who did change, it. was shown that respondents’ experiences while attending. Princeton caused their identification with Blacks and the. Black community to increase as their’ identification with.
Whites and good the White community decreased. However, after. Princeton, respondents’ experienced the opposite change in. attitude; their identification with Blacks and the Black. community decreased as their identification with Whites and. the White community increased. Private Versus Public? Thus, these findings suggest. that respondents who experience change as a result of their.
Princeton experiences are likely to identify less with. Blacks and the Black community in comparison to vocabulary Whites and. the Whites community. It is important to note that it is impossible for me to. generalize these findings for all Black Princeton alumni be- cause the sample for this study was much too small to make. any kind of generalizations. Essays? Therefore, I am only able to.
draw conclusions from these findings for the respondents to. What is left to be done now is a further examination of. this issue to determine if a Princeton education has unique. effects on good vocabulary, Blacks or if the effects are common for all col- lege-educated Blacks in general. It is my belief that such. a study should be undertaken by developing a new question- naire to phd thesis chennai be distributed to Black alumni of good essay vocabulary, several different. types of universities. Such a study could prove to be inva- luable to phd thesis writing bettering the educational environments for Blacks. who are able to attend college, thereby improving the good essay vocabulary over- all quality of a college education for Blacks. Billingsley, Andrew, Black Families in White America, (New.
Jersey: Prentice-Hall), 1968. Carmichael, S. Schools Schools? Hamilton, C., Black Power: The Politics of. Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), 1967. Conyers, J. Wallace W., Black Elected Officials, (New. York: Russell Sage Foundation), 1976. Dejoie, Carolyn, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in. Predominately Whites Universities”, (source of good essay vocabulary, article. Havemann, E. West, P., They Went to College: The College. Graduate in America Today, (New York: Harcourt, Brace Piazza Glock, “Images of teachers, God and Their Social Meaning”,
Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.), Thomas, Gail E., Black Students in Higher Education, (Connecticut: Greenwood Press), 1981. van den Berghe, Pierre, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), PDF of Michelle Obama Princeton Thesis. A Politico post by Jeffrey Ressner on good vocabulary, Michelle Obama’s 1985 Princeton thesis, entitled “Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community,” can be found here.
Politico is currently hosting it in phd thesis writing, a 4-part PDF. A complete PDF of the thesis can be downloaded here. The next post will be a word-searchable version, from a quick optical scan, minus the statistical data near the end of the thesis.
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Essays Vocabulary Words Flashcards | Quizlet
40 Useful Words and essay vocabulary Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to essays a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an good essay vocabulary, essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and essays phrases you need to essay write a top-notch essay, along with examples of speech self critique how to utilise them. It’s by essay no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of how to grade using the good essay vocabulary, words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. How To? Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points.
Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Good Vocabulary? Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to essays day speech express something in good essay, a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on chennai a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of essay vocabulary saying “in other words”, and mla format cover essay can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an good essay, alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to how to essays add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point.
Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of vocabulary “and” each time they want to add further information in thinking assumptions scenarios, support of a point they’re making, or to vocabulary build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of mla format letter a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to good talk about thinking, something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Good? Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to essay what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to good vocabulary react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”.
Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of self a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of good vocabulary “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to phd thesis chennai X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the essay vocabulary, British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an teachers, argument, presenting facts clearly one after the vocabulary, other. Phd Thesis? Example : “There are many points in support of good this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Phd Thesis Chennai? Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. Essay? When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”.
This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to speech essay make your writing sound more intelligent and vocabulary interesting. Usage : Use “however” to cover essay introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the vocabulary, other hand, the grade, archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account.
Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Vocabulary? Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for speech essay what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in good vocabulary, the same way as “then again”. Teachers? Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion.
That said, much of the essay, evidence is phd thesis unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on good vocabulary this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Grade? Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Good Vocabulary? Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of teachers day speech this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in good essay vocabulary, the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else.
Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at self, a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to good mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in critique, mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Vocabulary? Example : “In light of the teachers day speech, evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is good essay vocabulary similar to “despite this”. Self Critique Essay? Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of essay saying “nonetheless”.
Example : “Notwithstanding the teachers, limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the good, expression “for example” every time. Versus Public Schools Essays? Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to good vocabulary avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of thinking what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to good essay vocabulary introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the phd thesis writing, same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and good essay vocabulary it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of how to grade essays these ways of good vocabulary using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”.
Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to how to grade essays the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to vocabulary end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on critical assumptions both sides and good vocabulary reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the day speech, concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the good essay, evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to mla format letter be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to good me to essays teachers day speech be the most persuasive argument for good her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in cover letter, the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Good? Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to critical thinking scenarios assume that…” How many of vocabulary these words and phrases will you get into your next essay?
And are any of private schools versus your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to #8220;40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at essay, 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is phd thesis very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at good essay, 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful! November 26, 2016 at 12:00 pm, Ranch Dressing said: This the real RedKeyMon?
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December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black#8217;s writing .also,his romantic way in nature . Critical Assumptions Scenarios? Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. Good Vocabulary? For example, #8216;As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of speech essay a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to vocabulary remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on grade essays the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is a consequence of the other. Essay? I believe this is better, both logically and scenarios stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the good, negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world.
Consequently he foregrounded the mla format cover essay, importance of improving the good, relationship between humankind and nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at how to grade, 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Good Essay? Jim Loving said: You are correct. Thinking Assumptions Scenarios? I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and vocabulary I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, #8220;In order to#8221; can simply to be #8220;To.#8221; June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it. Cover Letter? June 05, 2015 at 5:17 am, william said: Thank you very much, I#8217;m having my O-level English in about 2 hours now and you really helped me. I#8217;m sure i can score an vocabulary, A now #128512; June 07, 2015 at 7:21 am, Lysha said: Great!! Thank you so much for including the tips above.
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Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at good vocabulary, 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list. I think it would also be helpful to phd thesis include a list of good vocabulary words to help express the thoughts of the schools, writers being referenced in the essay, for example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to good consider the learning abilities of all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at how to grade, 3:09 am, Lilow W. Good Essay Vocabulary? said:
This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful …………….
Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and writing chennai having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of essay cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of essays teachers day speech course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. Good Essay? If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the essays day speech, use of language in good vocabulary, literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. Speech Essay? December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to that effect.
As I like to joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an good, advantageous impact..in my result. Critical Thinking? November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great#8230; thanks for good vocabulary the A grade. November 16, 2015 at mla format cover letter, 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. Essay? One question though: The example given for phd thesis writing chennai phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to essay X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in speech critique, a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. Essay Vocabulary? November 29, 2015 at 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to private versus schools introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of good vocabulary cliches.
Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and speech self essay #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. Good Vocabulary? usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of mla format cover letter the.
pages, when an essay is about to end. Good Vocabulary? You#8217;ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the grade, obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to good vocabulary it. Writing? December 07, 2015 at essay, 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at phd thesis writing, 10:43 am, Jeff B. Essay? said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the essays teachers, record straight.
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Don#8217;t do any such thing. Just try to think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the words except the ones that say what I mean. And then your writing will be fine. You have the most wonderful writers in essay vocabulary, America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there#8217;s no floweriness, no literary effect, in the work of teachers day speech Damon Runyon, he is as neat as he can possibly be. One of his stories begins #8216;Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in good vocabulary, some quicklime.#8217; March 23, 2017 at 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. How To Grade? Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser#8217;s book #8220;On Writing Well.#8221; He emphasizes clarity in writing, and no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to have it in one place.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and good essay Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Chennai? Free Business Plan Template Download. Are you an entrepreneur looking to good essay vocabulary download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads.
Click the buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is mla format letter essay, filled in for good essay vocabulary you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Teachers? Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of their investment.
Chapter 2: Company and good vocabulary Financing: In this chapter, the critical assumptions scenarios goal is to good essay outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of chennai Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and good Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and critical Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in essay vocabulary terms of growth and behavior. Mla Format Cover Letter? Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and essay vocabulary sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Teachers? Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of good essay vocabulary progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances.
Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Letter Essay? Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and essay charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment.
For guidance on writing chennai what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. Good? A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the self unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. Vocabulary? If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and critical assumptions expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the good essay critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to speech self read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of good essay vocabulary Contents:
How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the essay rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to good vocabulary briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . How To? First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and good essay vocabulary convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the historical data and mla format cover letter essay trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors.
First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the good vocabulary background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to writing chennai add or subtract sections according to good essay vocabulary your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture).
This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of speech self critique their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and good Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to how to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in good essay the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service.
Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and critical distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the essay logic behind the writing chennai projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an good, existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to phd thesis reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the good essay loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is speech self, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Good Essay Vocabulary? Only then will you be able to self critique essay identify the amount of money you will need to essay vocabulary raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and speech Financing Chapter.
The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the good essay management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Teachers? Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of good essay success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the essays teachers day speech various components of vocabulary a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and phd thesis a brief description of the vocabulary company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences).
A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. Speech Critique? The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is essay vocabulary, someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to self critique set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. Vocabulary? So for essays teachers day speech example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and good essay you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head.
A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in teachers day speech the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to vocabulary liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to teachers shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at good, the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).
Some of the private versus schools drawbacks include not being able to good essay vocabulary have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the phd thesis writing member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on good vocabulary seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to assumptions start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.
For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. Good Vocabulary? With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. How To Grade? To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and essay responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the scenarios right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in essay vocabulary mind, however, that you also want to writing chennai demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change.
They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the vocabulary business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the grade essays Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in essay the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to critical assumptions set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for essay company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and critical assumptions are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to vocabulary a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on letter essay how much time the member is good essay, committed to your company.
Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the speech self first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is good essay vocabulary, highly recommended you work your way through the how to grade entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the good essay vocabulary amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and mla format cover essay debt.
The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is essay vocabulary, backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Phd Thesis Writing Chennai? If your company is already in existence and good vocabulary has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of versus schools essays your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for good vocabulary a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from chennai investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?
How much money do you need, and why and essay vocabulary when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Essays? The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to good essay vocabulary get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event).
But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the speech essay answer to the first two questions (which is essay vocabulary, why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the thinking scenarios cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for essay a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to critical what an investor thinks your company is good vocabulary, worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to essays facilitate the good essay negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by essays teachers analyzing the market value of good essay its assets.
In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the writing value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over essay vocabulary, time and then placing a value on cover letter essay that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at good essay vocabulary, cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:
Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on cover letter the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to essay ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy.
For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to grade essays pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to good vocabulary use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of mla format letter new kitchen:
Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on good the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the critical thinking scenarios family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and good VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by speech critique investing into your company. Therefore, you need to good include detailed information on how you intend to schools public schools sell the company or take it public.
Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the good potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target.
The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something.
A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the critical scenarios company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of essay Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and grade essays deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over good vocabulary, serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the how to grade company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. Good? By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and speech (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the good company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. Schools Versus Public? It is vocabulary, a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for private public essays the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY.
Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in essay vocabulary which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and assumptions federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and good essay vocabulary keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to teachers day speech highlight relevant history on how the company came to good vocabulary existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc.
Some information you may want to assumptions include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in essay mind that there is no set rule as to schools the level of vocabulary detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the grade business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of good essay your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the how to better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan.
Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of good essay retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the writing lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the essay vocabulary lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for essays day speech in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities.
For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in good essay retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office.
Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and private versus public essays financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Good Essay? Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to phd thesis buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in essay terms of benefits vs. features.
What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to how to essays tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of essay vocabulary your product/service are also important. Depending on private versus public schools essays what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services.
You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and vocabulary substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is speech self essay, a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in essay the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for essay you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to essay start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over schools versus, time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and good budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.
Tips on how to private public essays perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in good days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to how to essays entry (does not take much to start competing) There is good vocabulary, future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in self yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long.
Sourcing is simply the vocabulary process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for phd thesis writing your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the good essay price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.
Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is speech critique, simply the good essay process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to mla format order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to good order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the chennai product is manufactured in essay quantity based on speech critique expected sales of the good essay product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and self you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality.
Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Good Essay? Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of thinking assumptions scenarios companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices.
FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and good times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and self with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is good essay vocabulary, critical to speech critique essay your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Essay Vocabulary? Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize.
For example, if you license a piece of cover letter software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and good essay one that you will want to how to grade essays describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to essay a business: industrial property (such as patents and writing chennai trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and good essay movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is phd thesis writing, advisable that you seek the professional advice of essay a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to self critique provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress).
If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is good, recommended that you apply for a patent to schools public schools protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded.
IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to essay vocabulary secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to how to grade sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of good vocabulary intellectual property, there is writing, a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and good essay vocabulary strategy behind it . Critical Thinking? A key concept is that of essay vocabulary product lifecycle, which describes the writing stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the good essay price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in essay the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to good vocabulary stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors.
Marketing spend for your product starts to teachers day speech dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the essay products and services chapter. Writing the grade essays Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. Good? This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)
In the market overview section you are going to calculate the cover letter essay total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of essay that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the public highest level is an good essay, estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at essays day speech, this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the good essay vocabulary total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for writing chennai your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in good vocabulary downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant.
Then multiply the schools versus public two to get the essay vocabulary total sales for all high-end restaurants. Chennai? This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and good determine what percentage of the how to grade essays market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company.
Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the good essay vocabulary time and cost of critical thinking assumptions scenarios switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is good, high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for speech essay your products). Understanding market trends at vocabulary, the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section.
Below are some of the speech self critique essay other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on essay vocabulary some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in grade sales as households reduce spending on essay vocabulary non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to mla format letter date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for essay vocabulary the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to essays connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of essay your clients, then the versus public across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in vocabulary ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of cover letter essay technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on vocabulary a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and teachers changing consumer tastes.
Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the good vocabulary market can be said to have grown by mla format cover letter 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and good government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for private Blackberry accessories is vocabulary, clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to mla format cover letter see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is good vocabulary, defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and mla format cover essay Nissan are both in the automotive industry.
Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Good Essay? Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for how to conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the good vocabulary competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and critical low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to vocabulary enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by essays teachers day speech very few suppliers with little alternative but to vocabulary source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition.
An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and cover letter it is good essay, mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to essay many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and good essay account for the lion’s share of chennai your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of good your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in private schools essays a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to good essay vocabulary name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in essays day speech detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to essay move on public essays to the next chapter!
Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the good essay vocabulary lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the cover essay other section.
Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in good the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on essays teachers day speech price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. Essay? There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in teachers day speech a factory. The more you are able to good essay produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment.
Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to thinking low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is good essay vocabulary, not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at speech critique essay, a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of good essay their coffee. Determining the optimal price for how to essays your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the vocabulary market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for thinking scenarios quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on good essay vocabulary price, then you will want to be sensitive to this.
The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of day speech scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on good essay vocabulary how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in letter how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to vocabulary your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to thinking scenarios reach your target customers?
Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of essay vocabulary your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Private Schools Versus Public Essays? Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget.
A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of good essay vocabulary mouth marketing is by thinking far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to essay your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to speech critique essay continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to vocabulary like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from self critique customers, suppliers, partners and competitors.
You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Essay Vocabulary? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in public schools essays turn sell to retailers, who in good essay turn sell to critical thinking assumptions consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in good essay mass-market distribution channels. Critical Thinking Scenarios? Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and good essay vocabulary tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags.
The Internet presents an phd thesis writing chennai, unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the good Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to thinking scenarios define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. Vocabulary? It also includes sections that further elaborate on essays teachers day speech your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to good essay measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to writing measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).
A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the good essay company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and cover lenders will be looking at good vocabulary, what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only how to, turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is good vocabulary, a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the assumptions scenarios opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.
Strengths and vocabulary Weaknesses refer to how to grade internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and vocabulary Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is how to, very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.
Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to good vocabulary market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an speech essay, example of essay vocabulary a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. Critique? There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an good essay vocabulary, opportunity for a partnership in the future and how to essays that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business.
Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over essay vocabulary, your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is writing, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and vocabulary Panasonic partnered together to increase the teachers adoption of Blu-ray DVDs.
Aligning your brand with another company is good essay vocabulary, frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the essays day speech official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of good your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Speech Critique? These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the good chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections.
Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for grade essays Success. Define the good price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to mla format cover letter essay produce or sell the good essay product/service, and teachers the number of units you will sell. Good Vocabulary? Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is essays, highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the essay vocabulary size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter.
This is the speech critique essay price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of vocabulary your product/service may increase/decrease in grade essays price over time for essay vocabulary several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to grade encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the good essay expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by schools versus public schools products/services sold. Good Vocabulary? In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services.
Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the private schools public schools sales tax from your customers and then remit the essay tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business.
In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an how to, art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and vocabulary partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to critical this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan.
For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Good? Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. How To Grade? Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Good Vocabulary? Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in mla format cover letter certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for essay vocabulary additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and chennai travel expenses, vacation and essay sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is public schools, a fair estimate.
Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to vocabulary hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Versus Essays? A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to good essay think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and day speech leases, and telecommunications. Good Essay Vocabulary? Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of letter essay Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.
Fixed assets are depreciated over good essay, its useful lifetime. This is an essays teachers, accounting method that allows the business to good essay vocabulary allocate the costs of the phd thesis chennai asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and good Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into phd thesis writing cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the essay total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront.
Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the grade PL Statement and vocabulary Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on mla format letter essay the month it which it was made. Vocabulary? This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the how to grade use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is essay, expensed over private schools essays, time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an vocabulary, estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in critical scenarios the Personnel Section as the essay Burden Rate). Private Versus Public Essays? As this is only an good essay vocabulary, estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%).
Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and letter essay determine how much of good retained profit you want to schools distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. Essay? What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in private schools public schools your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser.
Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on vocabulary credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of writing physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for good vocabulary some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. Self Essay? It is good vocabulary, typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is phd thesis writing chennai, defined as short-term debt owed to good vocabulary suppliers and versus schools banks.
It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at essay vocabulary, accounts receivable (what is cover letter essay, owed to you) and essay vocabulary accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of essay days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in good essay vocabulary mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand.
The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to assumptions scenarios industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. Essay Vocabulary? In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on letter essay your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an good essay vocabulary, indicator.
Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on how to grade essays your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in good essay vocabulary which you will make and receive payments.
How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out how to essays a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and essay vocabulary are obligated to pay back at cover essay, a later time (usually in good vocabulary installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out scenarios a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. Good? These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and writing installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the good essay difference being that interest is grade essays, not charged on the part of the line of good credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at letter, any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the good essay vocabulary amount, as you want to how to essays forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit.
The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into essay vocabulary the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Speech Self Critique Essay? This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. Vocabulary? If you are a startup, it is letter essay, likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out vocabulary a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire?
At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here.
This is optional and speech self critique essay will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the good vocabulary number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Speech Self Critique Essay? Think about good essay what levers make the schools versus schools essays most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and good Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.
The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and how to essays profit. It is the essay vocabulary most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is phd thesis writing, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. Essay? The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of how to essays your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the good vocabulary last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the how to sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and good essay vocabulary stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display.
If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of speech critique adding starting balances under the essay vocabulary Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from phd thesis writing your operating, investing and essay financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in grade cash during a period. Essay Vocabulary? In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to essays teachers edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the vocabulary information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to how to grade cash is the company in good essay case. This is important in determining the speech self critique ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.
The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of good essay sales revenue is self, actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by good vocabulary stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets.
Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. Essay? It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an vocabulary, expert or accountant to cover help you create an accurate and good essay vocabulary detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and a glossary of day speech terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in vocabulary this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to critical assumptions scenarios write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to vocabulary attract equity investments and loans.
Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and how to grade essays your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and good vocabulary Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out speech self critique essay how to order your chapters, or the worry of good essay vocabulary feeling like you might be missing a section. Versus? We provide the good entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download.
After you download it, it’s up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Phd Thesis? Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and essay start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at private schools versus public essays, all to good purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good?
Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the how to grade essays complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to have to essay do the financial calculations, plans, and assumptions scenarios forecasts that a plan should offer to good attract investment — all by yourself. How To Grade Essays? Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to essay vocabulary professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for day speech them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to good vocabulary meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor. 2. Self Essay? You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and good essay vocabulary charts to critical thinking make the good essay calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is critical thinking scenarios, no easy task.
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Firearms on College Campus Essay Sample. There has been an on going debate about whether or not college students and/or professors should be allowed to carry firearms on campus. The Law allows each state to determine if concealed weapons are allowed to be carried on campus. Many advocates of firearms are in good, agreement that firearms should be allowed on campus. In the critical thinking scenarios, past years, there have been shootings on college campuses that killed many and injured many. Allowing those who are licensed and trained to carry firearms on campus would seemingly act as a deterrent to those who may have ill intentions and good essay vocabulary, often are carrying illegal firearms. With the proper training and mla format, education on firearms, students and professors would have the ability to neutralize a potential threat and have the essay, ability to protect themselves and those around them. Understanding that it is the duty of law enforcement to protect all of our citizens, it has become very clear that they can not be everywhere and response time to a life threatening situation is not always ideal.
Many argue that students and professors on college campuses should maintain focus on education and that allowing firearms on self critique campuses may cause distractions. Take the Virginia Tech massacre on good April 16th, 2007(1) as an example. In two shooting sprees that happened roughly two hours apart, a student at the university shot and killed 32 people and wounded a number of others before turning the gun on himself. If a trained and educated student or professor had been in possession of a firearm, many lives could have been saved. There have been many debates about allowing students to carry firearms. Many of the most common debates about why firearms should not be allowed on speech essay campus are easy to respond to: Answer: Studies* show that 90% of suicides are committed in essay, the home. Because most college students over the age of twenty-one (the minimum age to obtain a concealed handgun license in most states) live off campus, allowing concealed carry on how to grade college campuses would have very little impact on the ability of college students to good essay vocabulary possess firearms in their homes and, therefore, little to no impact on the overall number of mla format cover essay, suicides by college students.
*“Youth and Adolescent Suicide: A Guide for Educators,” Oregon Resiliency Project, University of Oregon, 2003; After Suicide: A Ray of Hope for good essay vocabulary Those Left Behind, Eleanora Betsy Ross, 2001 NOTE: At the University of private, Texas—a major university with over 50,000 students—a quick comparison of campus housing statistics and concealed handgun licensing statistics reveals that there would likely be no more than ten to twenty concealed handgun license holders living in on-campus housing [pic]Argument: Guns on campus would distract from the learning environment. Answer: Ask anyone in good, a ‘right to carry’ state when he or she last noticed another person carrying a concealed handgun. Critical Thinking. The word ‘concealed’ is vocabulary there for a reason. Concealed handguns would no more distract college students from learning than they currently distract moviegoers from enjoying movies or office workers from doing their jobs. “In most states with ‘shall-issue’ concealed carry laws, the rate of concealed carry is about 1%. That means that one person out of 100 is licensed to carry a concealed handgun. Critical Assumptions. Therefore, statistically speaking, a packed 300-seat movie theater contains three individuals legally carrying concealed handguns, and a shopping mall crowded with 1,000 shoppers contains ten individuals legally carrying concealed handguns. Students who aren’t too afraid to good essay vocabulary attend movies or go shopping and who aren’t distracted from learning by the knowledge that a classmate might be illegally carrying a firearm shouldn’t be distracted from learning by the knowledge that a classmate might be legally carrying a firearm.” Answer: The vulnerability of dorms to theft does not necessitate a campus-wide ban on concealed carry by licensed individuals. Self Critique. There are numerous other options, from community gun lockups to small, private gun safes that can be secured to walls, floors, bed frames, etc. NOTE: On most college campuses very few students of essay, legal age to obtain a concealed handgun license still live in dorms.
Even at writing chennai, the University of Texas—a major university with over vocabulary 50,000 students—a quick comparison of campus housing statistics and concealed handgun licensing statistics reveals that there would likely be no more than ten to twenty concealed handgun license holders living in mla format cover essay, on-campus housing. [pic]Argument: It’s possible that a gun might go off by accident. Answer: Accidental discharges are very rare—particularly because modern firearms feature multiple safety features and because a handgun’s trigger is typically not exposed when it is concealed—and only a small fraction of good essay, accidental discharges result in injury. SCCC feels that it is wrong to deny citizens a right simply because that right is accompanied by a negligible risk. NOTE: Only about 2% of all firearm-related deaths in teachers day speech, the U.S. are accidental, and vocabulary, most of those are hunting accidents and accidents involving firearms being openly handled in an unsafe manner. A person is five times more likely to accidentally drown, five times more likely to accidentally die in letter essay, a fire, 29 times more likely to die in an accidental fall, and vocabulary, 32 times more likely to die from accidental poisoning than to speech essay die from an accidental gunshot wound.
Answer: Before shall-issue concealed carry laws were passed throughout the United States, opponents claimed that such laws would turn disputes over parking spaces and traffic accidents into shootouts. This did not prove to be the case. The same responsible adults—age twenty-one and above—now asking to be allowed to good vocabulary carry their concealed handguns on college campuses are already allowed to do so virtually everywhere else. Scenarios. They clearly do not let their emotions get the better of them in other environments; therefore, no less should be expected of them on college campuses. Good Essay Vocabulary. [pic]Argument: The college lifestyle is defined by alcohol and drug abuse. Why would any sane person want to phd thesis add guns to that mix? Answer: This is essay NOT a debate about keeping guns out essays, of the hands of college students.
Allowing concealed carry on college campuses would not change the vocabulary, rules about who can buy a gun or who can obtain a concealed handgun license. Every state that provides for legalized concealed carry has statutes prohibiting license holders from carrying while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Legalizing concealed carry on college campuses would neither make it easier for how to essays college students to good obtain firearms nor make it legal for a person to carry a firearm while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Allowing concealed carry on college campuses would have no impact on teachers day speech the laws regulating concealed carry at bars and off-campus parties, the good vocabulary, places where students (particularly students of legal age to how to essays obtain a concealed handgun license) are most likely to consume alcohol. Argument: In an active shooter scenario like the one that occurred at Virginia Tech, a student or faculty member with a gun would only make things worse. Answer: What is good essay worse than allowing an execution-style massacre to continue uncontested? How could any action with the potential to stop or slow a deranged killer intent on slaughtering victim after victim be considered ‘worse’ than allowing that killer to thinking assumptions scenarios continue undeterred? Contrary to good vocabulary what the movies might have us believe, most real-world shootouts last less than ten seconds*. Even the real Gunfight at the O.K.
Corral, a shootout involving nine armed participants and a number of bystanders, lasted only about thirty seconds and resulted in how to grade essays, only three fatalities. It is unlikely that an exchange of gunfire between an armed assailant and an armed citizen would last more than a couple of vocabulary, seconds before one or both parties were disabled. How could a couple of seconds of exchanged gunfire possibly be worse than a ten-minute, execution-style massacre? Argument: The job of how to grade, defending campuses against violent attacks should be left to the professionals. Essay Vocabulary. Answer: Nobody is assumptions suggesting that concealed handgun license holders be charged with the good, duty of protecting campuses. What is being suggested is that adults with concealed handgun licenses be allowed to protect themselves on college campuses, the same way they’re currently allowed to protect themselves in most other unsecured locations. Writing. Argument: Police officers typically spend four to five months in training; whereas, concealed handgun license holders usually spend one day or less. Answer: Police officers do not spend four to five months learning to carry concealed handguns for essay vocabulary self-defense; they spend four to private public schools essays five months learning to be police officers. Concealed handgun license holders are not police officers; therefore, they have no need of most of the training received by police officers.
Concealed handgun license holders don’t need to know how to good drive police cars at high speeds or how to kick down doors or how to conduct traffic stops or how to critical thinking scenarios make arrests or how to use handcuffs. And concealed handgun license holders definitely don’t need to essay vocabulary spend weeks memorizing radio codes and traffic laws. “Contrary to what some opponents of concealed carry might claim, concealed handgun license holders don’t need extensive tactical training because they are not charged with protecting the critical, public—It’s not their job to act like amateur, one-man SWAT teams. Essay. All a concealed handgun license holder needs to how to essays know is essay vocabulary how to essays day speech use his or her concealed handgun to stop an immediate threat of death or serious bodily harm, and that type of training CAN be accomplished in a few hours.” NOTE: In some states, such as Texas, the shooting test for a concealed handgun license differs very little from the annual re-qualification test for police officers. Argument: How are first responders supposed to tell the difference between armed civilians and vocabulary, armed assailants? Answer: This hasn’t been an issue with concealed handgun license holders in other walks of life for several reasons. First and private public, foremost, real-world shootouts are typically localized and over good essay vocabulary very quickly. It’s not realistic to expect police to day speech encounter an good vocabulary ongoing shootout between assailants and armed civilians. Critical Thinking Assumptions. Second, police are trained to expect both armed bad guys AND armed good guys—from off-duty/undercover police officers to armed civilians—in tactical scenarios. Good. Third, concealed handgun license holders are trained to how to use their firearms for self-defense.
They are not trained to run through buildings looking for bad guys. Therefore, the biggest distinction between the armed assailants and good essay, the armed civilians is that the private schools versus schools, armed civilians would be hiding with the crowd, and the armed assailants would be shooting at essay, the crowd. Answer: Among the thirty-six shall-issue’ states*—states where local authorities cannot require qualified applicants to “show a need” before the applicant is issued a concealed handgun license/concealed carry weapons permit—six states allow, without special provision, for critical any qualified person eighteen years or older to be issued a concealed handgun license. These states are Indiana, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, and South Dakota. “Based on the FBI/Department of Justice violent crime statistics for the year 2006, the crime rates for these seven states, when ranked with all fifty states and the District of Columbia, rank as follows: • Indiana – 30. • South Dakota – 47. • New Hampshire – 48. • North Dakota – 50. “Not only are Maine, North Dakota, New Hampshire, and South Dakota four of the five** U.S. Good Vocabulary. states with the essays teachers, lowest crime rates, Montana has the good, tenth lowest crime rate, and Indiana isn’t even in the top 50%. Clearly, these states’ lenient concealed handgun laws are not breeding generations of young violent offenders. “The extraordinarily low crime rates in these six states, coupled with the self essay, fact that these states have a combined population of only about 10,900,000 (approximately 1.6 million less than the combined population of America’s two largest cities—New York, NY, and Los Angeles, CA—and at approximately 1/3 the essay vocabulary, combined violent crime rate of those two cities) has led Students for Concealed Carry on Campus to focus on the majority of ‘shall-issue’ states where the minimum age to receive a concealed handgun license is twenty-one.” *Alaska (licenses are offered but not required to carry a concealed handgun), Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming **Vermont is ranked at 49—the third least violent state. Vermont neither requires nor offers a license to carry a concealed handgun. [pic]Argument:
It is inconceivable that any logical person would believe that the answer to violence is more guns. Answer: One might have just as easily told Edward Jenner, the man who discovered in the late eighteenth century that the cowpox virus could be used to inoculate people against smallpox, ‘It is inconceivable that any logical person would believe that the how to essays, answer to disease is more viruses. Argument: The answer to bullets flying is not more bullets flying. Answer: Actually, the answer to bullets flying is almost always more bullets flying. That’s why the police bring so many guns with them when they respond to a report of ‘shots fired. Argument: The answer to school violence is prevention, not guns on campus. Answer: Prevention and preparedness are not mutually exclusive. In a perfect system, the good essay, two approaches to safety compliment each other. Preventive measures, such as teaching students and faculty to watch for the warning signs of mental illness and versus public essays, providing counseling to disturbed students, can work hand in hand with preparative measures, such as developing campus alert systems, providing additional training to good essay vocabulary campus police, and allowing the same trained, licensed adults who legally carry concealed handguns when not on college campuses to do so on college campuses. Answer: Though statistically safer than other comparable locations, college campuses play host to every type of violence found in the rest of chennai, society, from vocabulary, murder to assault to rape.
The statistics suggest that allowing concealed carry on campus won’t hurt and might help; therefore, there is versus no legitimate reason not to good essay allow it. A free society does not deny the cover essay, people a right unless there is good vocabulary empirical evidence that granting that right will do more harm than good. [pic]Argument: Some professors might be afraid to issue bad grades if they know that students could be carrying guns Answer: Why should professors be more afraid of issuing bad grades to students who want to carry guns LEGALLY than of thinking assumptions scenarios, issuing bad grades to vocabulary students who might already be carrying guns ILLEGALLY? College campuses are open environments—they don’t have controlled points of entry, metal detectors, or X-ray machines. In light of the fact that a person unconcerned with violating the rules can walk onto a college campus carrying pretty much anything he or she chooses, some professors might feel more comfortable about issuing bad grades if they knew they were allowed the means to defend themselves. Argument: The last thing we need is a bunch of vigilantes getting into a shootout with a madman, particularly since it’s been proven that trained police officers have an how to essays accuracy rate of only about 15-25% in essay vocabulary, the field Answer: Citizens with concealed handgun licenses are not vigilantes. They carry their concealed handguns as a means of getting themselves out of harm’s way, not as an excuse to go chasing after bad guys.
Whereas police shooting statistics involve scenarios such as pursuits down dark alleys and armed standoffs with assailants barricaded inside buildings, most civilian shootings happen at essays teachers, pointblank range. In the Luby’s Cafeteria massacre, the Columbine High School massacre, and the Virginia Tech massacre, the assailants moved slowly and methodically, shooting their victims from very close range. A person doesn’t have to be a deadeye shot to good essay vocabulary defend himself or herself against cover letter an assailant standing only good essay vocabulary, a few feet away(2). For these reasons and many others, firearms should be permitted on campus. The bottom line is that if the state allows someone to carry a firearm in public places, why should a college campus be any different? Virginia Tech massacre – Wikipedia, free encyclopedia 2. http://www.concealedcampus.org/common_arguments.php. Students for Concealed Carry on Campus – Supporting self-defense on Campus. Is this the teachers day speech, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Firearms on good essay vocabulary College Campus. essay editing for phd thesis only $13.9 per essay vocabulary, page.
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