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British Airways organizational structure. Primary Forms? Figure: British Airways Organizational Structure British Airways has a unique organizational structure led by a general manager, who is answerable to the Board of Directors. Being a global company, the British Airways has several branches across the globe. Holiday Essay? These branches are led by branch managers, who are in turn answerable to the general manager. The branches are divided into a number of primary forms departments such as Settlement, Imports, Handing, Customer Service, Finance and Sales. British Airways General culture British Airways has been on on primary the frontline in book, the creation of an all-inclusive culture among its employees. The culture env. Need essay sample on British Airways organizational structure ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. . isioned by the airline is aimed at understanding and respecting individual differences among its employees. Holiday Essay? The airline has also embarked on a mission aimed at delivering services reflecting and responding to the various needs of the customers. The company has strived to primary book forms, remain competitive by integrating diversity in all aspects of its services.

Since the thesis on primary education, airline operates globally, it has embarked on a venture aimed at report, attracting and retaining talented employees capable of reflecting on its customer base. The airline has employed a mixture of essay people from different backgrounds in order to boost innovation and potential new ideas. The airline’s strategy is driven via diversity champions who represent departments across the organization. Moreover, the airline has a culture where employee groups usually meet regularly with an primary book aim of grizzly bear discussing various issues about book report, ethnicity, sexual orientation, flexible working, disability and religion. British Airways communicates its diversity issues to its employees through the company newspaper, diversity employee network, diversity forums, and the company’s corporate intranet site. The airline also owns monthly newsletters titled ‘Religious Festivals and ‘Diverse Times’ that also help in the communication of diversity to the company’s employees.

British Airways has shown a lot of commitment towards customer satisfaction. Self? Its high quality customer service has gone a long way in creating the book forms, company’s image. Although the customer service department is presenting the entire airline’s branches, its employees are also trained to dating, serve its customers in the best way possible. Forms? British airline’s management has been described as autocratic with very few people dominating the making of argumentative decisions that involve billions of pounds. For instance, the airline’s top executive Willie Walsh was once perceived as being at the centre of major decisions by the company. Walsh’s leadership style has been described as autocratic and at the same time very charismatic. British Airways marketing features British Airways marketing is primary book forms, mainly through methods such as covert advertising, television commercials, infomercials, celebrity advertising, commercial advertising and newer media forms of advertising. The company’s marketing features mainly target the already existing and loyal customers. The company’s marketing strategies mainly target the up-market business class clients. The company therefore uses marketing media that are likely to reach this group of argumentative essay on education system people. It forgets to use other forms of media that that can bring it other new clients.

The airline should start targeting a wider audience; it should also target the lower-end market since it may get some new clients from primary forms this market end. Holiday Essay? The company should also put more investment in the latest technology in its marketing ventures. Report? It should reduce its investment in the older forms of marketing in favour of the newer forms. A Dream? For instance, the Internet technology and the World Wide Web phenomenon should be given more attention than they are. This is the book, best way of reaching the new generation of clients, who are in their large numbers and still growing.

Conclusion The paper analysed various aspects of two companies- Virgin Atlantic and British Airways. From the PESTEL Analysis and SWOT Analysis of education Virgin Atlantic Airways, many strengths and opportunities were discoveries alongside a few weaknesses and threats. Primary Book Forms? After undertaking a primary research into Virgin Atlantic’s main competitor, British Airways, many opportunities were also discovered. The two companies generally have strong points with only a few areas in need of self essay improvement. Virgin Atlantic seems more receptive to change than its competitor, British Airways. Branson, R (2006) Losing my Virginity The Autobiography, Virgin Books Limited, London Essen, Y (2007, May 30) Market report-British Airways soars on renewed takeover hopes, The Telegraph Kilbourne, J (2000) How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel, Free Press. Korten, D (1995) When Corporations Rule the World, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, California Leiss, W (1990) Social Communication in Advertising, Routledge Louw, E (2001) The Media and Cultural Production, Sage Publications, London Reeves, R (1961), Reality in forms, Advertising, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, LCCN UK CAA (2006) 2006 UK Airline Statistics, retrieved from www. caa. co. uk, on September 3, 2008 Virgin Atlantic (2009) Virgin Atlantic Airways – Company Overview, Virgin Atlantic Airways Williamson, J (1994) Decoding Advertisements, Marion Boyars Publishers Limited. Distinction between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Distinction between microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is the study of thesis about individual economic units of an book forms economy whereas macroeconomics is the study of aggregates of an essays economy as a whole. Primary Book Report Forms? For example, when we study of an individual sugar mill manufacturing sugar, our study is micro analysis but if we study #8230; Introduction Economic sociology is an essays day speech attempt by sociologists to redefine in sociological terms questions traditionally addressed by economists. It is thus also an answer to attempts by economists to bring economic approaches in particular utility mastication and game theory to the analysis of report forms social situations that are not obviously related to production or #8230; We are live streaming the Entrepreneur 360™ Conference.

Enjoy main-stage presentations, panel discussions and more. Final Exam Review Questions 1) A bill becomes a law by thesis about dating, getting passed by both sides of congress and then getting approved by book forms, the president. 2)Civil- usually involve private disputes between persons or organizations Criminal- involve an action that is considered to be harmful to society as a whole 3) The three branches of government #8230;

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Post-Hurricane Irma Update #7: Classes to resume Monday, Sept. Book Report Forms? 18, 2017. Recovery is well under way at FIU following Hurricane Irma. Check this post regularly for the latest updates on university operations: Post-Hurricane Irma Update #7 – Sept. Dating? 15, 2017. We continue to make progress toward resuming normal operations on Monday. The FIU family is busy getting the campus ready for classes, while we continue to assist those who have been more severely impacted by Hurricane Irma. On Saturday, the Green Library at MMC will be open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Only FIU students, faculty and primary book report forms staff can enter, with a valid university identification. The Green Library and bear the Hubert Library at BBC will resume normal hours on Sunday, 10 a.m. to 1 a.m.

For the full weekly schedule, please visit the libraries website. The disruption caused by Hurricane Irma resulted in more than a week of class cancellations. In collaboration with the Faculty Senate, United Faculty of Florida-FIU and the Student Government Association, we have added a week to the end of the primary book, semester to help make up for on education system lost classroom time. We recommend that faculty members update their syllabi so that this coming week is a makeup week. Primary Book Report? New official academic calendars will be published next week. Finals week will begin on Dec. 11 and self commencement ceremonies will now take place starting on Friday, Dec.

15, through Sunday, Dec. 17. The university is making every effort to be responsive to the needs of students, faculty and staff. The university and Bayview Management are working around the clock with external contractors to restore the building for move-in as quickly as possible. This work will continue all day Saturday and Sunday morning, Sept. 16-17. We will be able to get almost all of our students back into their rooms beginning at 2 p.m. on Sunday. Once we have completed our final inspection on Sunday morning, any student who has a room still under restoration will be notified and provided accommodations at either the book report forms, Biscayne Bay Campus or Bayview study lounges. Students who are temporarily displaced will still have limited access to their rooms for showers and to retrieve personal items, and it is thesis about dating, anticipated that these temporary accommodations will only be necessary for one or two days.

FIU and Bayview Management will communicate an report forms update to all residents again on thesis on primary education, Saturday. Students may send inquiries to The main Bayview telephone – 305-998-3777 – will be operational starting at noon on Sunday. There have been some changes to the schedule of many of our athletic teams. Please check the Athletics website for details.

FIU employees please be on the lookout for separate communications on how to forms, navigate through the purchase and procurement process related to the hurricane as well as guidance from grizzly, Human Resources on how to report time. The call center is primary report forms, now closed. Today the volunteers fielded more than 350 phone calls about internet dating hurricane recovery and book report forms campus operations. You can continue to call 305-348-HELP (4357) for pre-recorded updates. Many of you are eager to donate and volunteer your time to help our neighbors who have been severely impacted by on primary education, the hurricane. Please note that FIU is not a drop-off site for donations.

Here are some ways you can help: Please remember that cash donations are always best. Financial help is critically needed and provides assistance to the most people in the fastest and most efficient manner. Goodwill Industries is partnering with the Red Cross to accept, manage, sort and book report forms make goods available where needed. Here are some drop off points: 9760 SW 8 St, Miami, FL 33174. 10201 Hammocks Blvd, Miami, FL 33196.

2050 71 St., Miami Beach, FL 33141. Please remember that official information about FIU is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. Grizzly Bear Essays? You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. This is the last post-Irma update. Thank you for your attention to these messages. See you back on campus on primary book report forms, Monday! Together we rise. #FIUStrong. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #6 – Sept. 14, 2017. Today has been another good day on our way back to normalcy in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma. This trying time has brought out the teachers, best in our FIU family and primary report forms together we are getting a lot done.

FIU will resume classes on grizzly essays, Monday, Sept. 18. Faculty and staff have made their way back to campus, the Green Library is open, services such as the Recreation Center and Student Health Center will resume operations on Friday, Sept. 15, and food vendorsat MMC have started to reopen. BBC services have started to reopen as well but the campus remains under a boil water order. The Barnes and Noble at BBC is distributing three bottles of water per person while supplies last.

Please be sure not to drink from the water fountains until further notice. Bayview remains closed. The property manager is working hard to get it ready. Many rooms had water intrusion – some significant – and several of the air conditioning units were damaged. Remediation contractors are now extracting moisture and making repairs. Please look for an announcement this weekend on when Bayview will open.

The disruption caused by Hurricane Irma resulted in more than a week of class cancellations. In collaboration with the primary book report forms, Faculty Senate, United Faculty of Florida and the Student Government Association, we have added a week to the end of the semester to help make up for lost classroom time. We recommend that faculty members update their syllabi so that this coming week is speech self, a makeup week. New official academic calendars will be published next week. Finals week will be Dec. 11 to 16. Book? Commencement ceremonies will now take place starting on essays, Sunday, Dec.

17, through Wednesday, Dec. 20, 2017. Book Forms? We apologize for grizzly essays any inconveniences this schedule change may cause some families. Panthers making a difference. Today a group of voice students under the direction of Vindhya Khare performed for evacuees at the Fuchs Pavilion at Tamiami Park. Primary Book? The students led singalongs of Disney tunes with the children. Members of the FIU Marching Band followed with an outdoor performance.

FIU performers then went to the special needs shelter at PG 6 for a second presentation. Members of the a dream holiday, FIU-FAST team spent the day again at primary report forms, West Kendall Baptist Hospital and on education Jackson South helping treat emergency room patients, who have flocked to hospitals since so many urgent care centers and other providers are closed. Countless other Panthers have stepped forward to fill so many needs in our community. In the process, we have met many other selfless people who have come to primary forms, our campus to do good work. The call center will continue to be open from on education, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to answer questions related to hurricane recovery and campus operations.

Today the volunteers fielded more than 450 phone calls from members of the FIU community who had questions ranging from the academic schedule to classes resuming on Monday. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357). You can also call this number outside of the call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations. Members of the university community who have been personally impacted by Hurricane Irma and do not have insurance may register with FEMA online or by calling1-800-621-FEMA. Many of you are eager to donate and volunteer your time to help our neighbors who have been severely impacted by the hurricane. Please note that FIU is not a drop-off site for donations. Here are some ways you can help:

The American Red Cross is looking for help. There is a particular need for bilingual (Spanish/English or Creole/English) volunteers in the Greater Miami/Keys area, LaBelle-Clewiston, as well as in and around Naples and Ft Myers. There is some need, as well, in Tampa/ St. Pete and Jacksonville. There are two steps to join as a volunteer: First, you will need to sign up officially as a Red Cross volunteer. You can do this online at this link: . You will be asked to fill out contact information and a couple of release forms—including one for a criminal background check. Second, we invite you to primary forms, click on this link and provide information about your preferred part of on primary, Florida to volunteer, and the type of work you would like to support. There is a variety of book report, opportunities to choose from, including in shelters, distributing goods and food, and enrolling affected persons in financial assistance. Please remember that cash donations are always best. Financial help is critically needed and provides assistance to the most people in the fastest and most efficient manner.

The Florida Disaster Fund has been activated and grizzly bear essays is approved by the State of Florida. It is administered by the Volunteer Florida Foundation. The American Red Cross and Salvation Army are both widely recognizable relief organizations and welcome support. Contributions can be made specifically for Hurricane Irma relief through each organization’s website: Goodwill Industries is partnering with the Red Cross to accept, manage, sort and make goods available where needed. Primary Book? In addition to being a processing center, Goodwill Industries has also developed its own program focused on people who lost possessions due to storm damage or flooding, or who remain without power and need dry clothing to wear as well as housewares. While Goodwill Industries can accept almost anything, the current focus is on clothing, shoes, towels, linens and household goods. No perishable food, please. Goodwill Industries prefers, where possible, that all packaging be shrink-wrapped and palletized.

Please remember that official information about campus reopening and other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on theuniversity’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for argumentative essay on education updates. At this time last week we were preparing for a storm. Today we are looking forward to welcoming our students, faculty and staff back to primary book forms, a great semester, grateful we could help so many who were more severely impacted than us. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #5 – Sept. 13, 2017. Today has crystallized the holiday essay, complexity of recovery for our FIU and the community.

We have had a great day of primary, real progress thanks to argumentative on education system, many selfless people who are working long hours in primary book report forms order to help others and get FIU operating normally. Recovery and cleanup work is going well, and we expect to argumentative essay on education, resume regular operations on primary book report forms, Monday, Sept. 18. Bear? Please stay alert for a definitive announcement on when classes will begin. Most FIU facilities are accessible and primary forms have power.

Faculty and staff are able to report to work beginning at noon on Thursday to ensure that their specific areas are ready so that the university is fully operational on Monday . Some areas need to be fully staffed Thursday afternoon and Friday , while others may not need to bring in all employees. Please contact your supervisor to self, discuss the needs of your individual department and primary your particular circumstances. FIU Human Resources will send a separate communication outlining guidelines for handling special circumstances and time reporting. Please note that on Thursday , the university is open for faculty and staff only. Classes are still canceled until further notice. Once you arrive on campus, please report any storm damage, including water intrusion, to FIU Facilities Management right away at 305-348-4600. The IT help desk will be available to assist with computer issues.

Please call 305-348-2284. Green Library is open from system, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. through the weekend. The library has limited services but electricity, Wi-Fi and some computers are available. The Student Health Center, the primary book, on-campus pharmacy and Miami Children’s Hospital Ambulatory Care Center located at MMC will open on Friday at 9 a.m. Please use extreme caution when driving to campus as there still is debris on essays, the roads and many traffic lights are not yet working. Bayview is not yet able to receive residents. Please look for an announcement on this soon. Primary? While BBC is open to faculty and staff, please be mindful that there is a boil water advisory for the area. A call center is now operational from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to answer questions related to hurricane recovery and campus operations. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357).

You can also call this number outside of the call center hours for essay recorded updates regarding university operations. Some of the food vendors on campus are open during limited hours. For information on what is open, please consult The disruption caused by Hurricane Irma resulted in more than a week of report forms, class cancellations. Day Speech? In collaboration with the Faculty Senate, United Faculty of Florida and the Student Government Association, we have added a week to primary report forms, the end of the semester to help make up for lost classroom time. We recommend that faculty members update their syllabus so that this coming week is a makeup week.

New official academic calendars will be published next week. Finals week will be Dec. 11 to a dream holiday essay, 16 . Commencement ceremonies will now take place starting on Sunday, Dec. 17 , through Wednesday, Dec. 20, 2017 . We apologize for any inconveniences this schedule change may cause some families. Monroe County special needs evacuees are being housed in primary book report PG6.

General population evacuees have been relocated to the Red Cross shelter at thesis about internet dating, Tamiami Park’s Fuchs Pavilion. The FIU Ocean Bank Convocation Center is housing approximately 75 public health and nursing personnel who are here to primary book report, support the a dream holiday, special needs evacuees. As we work to get the university up and running again, FIU has become a hub of relief planning activity. Primary Book Report? In the last two days, we have hosted several elected officials including Congressman Carlos Curbelo, Florida Senator and holiday minority leader Oscar Braynon II, Florida House of Representatives Speaker Pro Tempore Jeanette Nunez and State Representative Jose Felix Diaz. Today U.S. Secretary of Labor Alex Acosta visited with the special needs Monroe County evacuees who are being sheltered in report forms PG6. We appreciate that each of them has taken an thesis about dating interest in what we are doing at FIU for the community and vowed to help find the resources our community needs to get back on forms, its feet. They also had opportunities to argumentative essay system, meet some of the selfless people who have stepped forward to take responsibility for making things better for others. There are many unsung heroes in our FIU family as well. Assistant Vice President for Parking and primary report forms Transportation Thomas Hartley is one of them. Yesterday he stepped forward to argumentative essay, coordinate an effort to give Monroe County evacuees an opportunity to primary forms, take showers at FIU’s Riccardo Silva Stadium locker rooms.

For people who have been displaced and in many cases do not know if they have a home to return to, being able to take a shower for the first time in five days was a small but important morale booster. Others have worked behind the scenes to about internet, feed the evacuees and primary report forms volunteers, maintain clean and sanitary spaces and day speech get our facilities ready for next week. We are pleased to report that the primary report forms, FIU-FAST team continues to make a life-saving difference in our own community. The team of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel deployed to augment the thesis internet, capabilities of West Kendall Baptist Hospital and primary report forms Jackson South. Our music students continue to come together to lift the spirits of argumentative on education, Monroe County evacuees. Today the Amernet String Quartet performed for special needs evacuees. Report Forms? On Thursday , a group is scheduled to essays teachers, perform children’s songs at the general population shelter, which moved to primary book report forms, Tamiami Park, adjacent to MMC. Our food vendor Aramark donated 1,000 pounds of fruit and 1,500 bottles of argumentative essay, juice to the Monroe County evacuees. We know many of you are eager to donate and primary report volunteer your time to help our neighbors who have been severely impacted by the hurricane.

Please note that FIU is bear essays, not a drop-off site for donations. Here are some ways you can help: The American Red Cross is looking for help. There is a particular need for primary forms bilingual (Spanish/English or Creole/English) volunteers in the Greater Miami/Keys area, LaBelle-Clewiston, as well as in and around Naples and Ft Myers. There is some need, as well, in thesis about Tampa/ St. Pete and Jacksonville.

There are two steps to join as a volunteer: First, you will need to sign up officially as a Red Cross volunteer. You can do this online at this link: You will be asked to fill out contact information and a couple of release forms—including one for a criminal background check. Second, we invite you to click on this link and provide information about your preferred part of Florida to volunteer, and the type of work you would like to support. There is a variety of opportunities to choose from, including in book report shelters, distributing goods and bear food, and enrolling affected persons in financial assistance. Please remember that cash donations are always best. Financial help is critically needed and provides assistance to the most people in book forms the fastest and most efficient manner.

The Florida Disaster Fund has been activated and is approved by the State of Florida. It is administered by the Volunteer Florida Foundation. The American Red Cross and Salvation Army are both widely recognizable relief organizations and education welcome support. Contributions can be made specifically for primary book forms Hurricane Irma relief through each organization’s website: Goodwill Industries is partnering with the Red Cross to accept, manage, sort and make goods available where needed.

In addition to being a processing center, Goodwill Industries has also developed its own program focused on a dream essay, people who lost possessions due to storm damage or flooding, or who remain without power and need dry clothing to forms, wear as well as housewares. While Goodwill Industries can accept almost anything, the current focus is on clothing, shoes, towels, linens and grizzly bear essays household goods. No perishable food, please. Goodwill Industries prefers, where possible, that all packaging be shrink-wrapped and primary report palletized. Please remember that official information about campus reopening and day speech other conditions is primary report, being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and holiday essay Twitter), on primary book report, the university’s news site and through local media. Thesis About Dating? You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. Please continue to pay attention to primary book, these updates. Stay safe. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #4 – Sept.

12, 2017. The initial assessment of grizzly bear essays, damages to FIU facilities due to Hurricane Irma has been completed. Report Forms? Cleanup and repairs are under way. Day Speech? The university is on track to reopen according to book, the following schedule: Wednesday, Sept. 13 : Researchers and lab technicians can return to their labs. Any damage, including water intrusion, should be reported to facilities right away at 305-348-4600.

Thursday, Sept. 14, noon : University open for system faculty and primary report staff who need to day speech, come in in order to be fully operational on Monday . All classes – including online classes – are still cancelled. We expect to resume classes on Monday but official determination is pending further review. Green Library is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. through the weekend. Primary Report? The library has limited services but electricity, Wi-Fi and some computers are available. It is only open to FIU students, faculty, staff, who must show a valid FIU i.d. Please use extreme caution when driving to campus as there still is debris on the roads and most traffic lights are not yet working. All MMC on-campus residents who sheltered on thesis on primary, campus have returned to their rooms. Bayview evacuees are still at report, MMC.

Students who evacuated MMC housing before the storm can return to their rooms on Wednesday, Sept. 13, starting at argumentative, noon. Students who live at Bayview on Biscayne Bay Campus must remain off campus while some clean up takes place. A call center is now operational from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to answer questions related to hurricane recovery and campus operations. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357). You can call this number outside of the call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations. As we prepare to return to primary report, normal, there are many in dating our community and neighboring communities who still need help. If you are able to volunteer, the American Red Cross is looking for help. There is a particular need for bilingual (Spanish/English or Creole/English) volunteers in the Greater Miami/Keys area, LaBelle-Clewiston, as well as in and around Naples and report forms Ft Myers. There is some need, as well, in Tampa/ St. Thesis? Pete and Jacksonville.

There are two steps to join as a volunteer: First, you will need to sign up officially as a Red Cross volunteer. You can do all of book report, this online at this link: You will be asked to fill out contact information and a couple of argumentative on education system, release forms—including one for a criminal background check. Second, we invite you to primary report, click on this link and a dream holiday essay provide information about primary report forms your preferred part of Florida to essays, volunteer, and the type of report forms, work you would like to support. There is a variety of opportunities, including in shelters, distributing goods and food, and enrolling affected persons in financial assistance. Please remember that official information about campus reopening and other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and essay on education system through local media. Primary Report Forms? You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for speech essay updates. Thank you and be safe. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #3 – Sept. 12, 2017. At FIU, we are well on our way to recovery and have been able to open the Green Library today (Tuesday, Sept 12).

FIU students, faculty and staff will need a valid FIU ID to enter. The library has limited services but electricity, Wi-Fi and some computers are available. For now, the Green Library will be open from 10 a.m. to primary, 5 p.m. If you are coming from off campus, please enter the grizzly, campus through S.W. 8 Street and 112 Ave. and park in PG 6. Please remember some areas of primary report, South Florida are still under a curfew. The rest of MMC and thesis about dating all other FIU locations are still closed. Classes – including online classes—are still cancelled until further notice.

All MMC on-campus residents who sheltered on book, campus have returned to their rooms. Bayview evacuees are still at MMC. Students who live on campus but spent the storm off campus should remain off campus until further notice. Students who live at Bayview on Biscayne Bay Campus must remain off campus since BBC is closed while damage assessment takes place. A call center will be open starting on Wednesday, Sept. Grizzly Bear Essays? 13, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to answer questions related to primary book report forms, hurricane recovery and campus operations. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357). You can call this number outside of the argumentative system, call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations. The FIU-FAST (Florida Advanced Surgical Transport) team has been deployed to assist the staff at West Kendall Baptist Hospital, which saw a large number of patients in their emergency room, in part due to the fact that doctors’ offices, urgent care centers and other medical service providers are closed. We are proud to primary book, report that six physicians, four nurses and one paramedic from the FIU-FAST deployed with one of day speech, our mobile clinics to provide additional patient care treatment and primary book report have already seen more than 100 patients.

All athletic events in Miami are canceled through Sunday. The football game at Indiana on Saturday, Sept. Essays Teachers? 16, also is report, canceled. At its peak, FIU sheltered more than 500 Monroe County evacuees, including 139 special needs evacuees. The shelter is managed by a dream essay, Monroe County, the Florida Department of Health and the American Red Cross. We are working hard to create more humane conditions for evacuees. We are very pleased that this afternoon a group of jazz students and book forms part of the FIU Marching Band will be at the Ocean Bank Convocation Center performing for evacuees. Please stay alert to announcements about university operations. Official information about campus reopening and other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and a dream essay Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. Primary Report Forms? You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates.

Post-Hurricane Irma Update #2 – Sept. 11, 2017. Provost Kenneth G. Furton sent the following message to students and faculty regarding assignments following Hurricane Irma on Sept. Teachers? 11, 2017: We hope all of primary report forms, you are safe in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma. I appreciate that many of essay, you are eager to continue your studies, teaching, and research, even while dealing with your personal challenges. The university is currently closed until further notice. As such, we ask that all faculty be flexible and hold students harmless with respect to the timeliness of primary book report forms, assignments. Once assessments of on primary, our university and community are complete, we will be able to make a well-informed decision on primary report, next steps. Students, faculty and staff will receive ample notice to make their way back to campus.

We ask students and faculty to please not come to campus until you receive notice through one of our official channels, which include email, and social media, that the university is open and classes will resume. Also, as soon as you are able, faculty are asked to speech self critique, report to your department chair to let them know you are safe and update them on primary, your ability to return to essay, work. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #1 – Sept. 10, 2017. Even though this has been an book exhausting couple of days, and even though the storm we have endured is one of the a dream, worst that Florida has experienced, you all must understand that we have survived one of book, Florida’s most devastating storms with limited damages. Compared to nearby communities and neighborhoods throughout the state, we are relieved and in many ways enabled to on primary, help as much as possible. No doubt, significant advance preparation, and a spirit of cooperation, collaboration and patience have enabled an book incredible team effort by members of our community. I want to thank you for all this. Even more important, I want to thank you in advance for your patience and willingness to adapt in self critique essay what may be a situation of extreme difficulty for friends, loved ones and neighbors. Parts of campus are flooded following Hurricane Irma. Damages across the book, university are currently being assessed.

FIU remains closed until further notice. In these first moments following the storm as we focus on essays, recovery, please remember that unnecessary accidents and personal harm occur in the effort to secure your property. We want you and your families intact and moving forward once we resume operations. It is book report forms, likely that many members of the university community, friends, family and self essay neighbors were severely impacted by this storm. If you are able to help, please look for primary book opportunities to on primary education, make a difference in our community. Now that the worst of Hurricane Irma has moved past South Florida, FIU has started to assess the damage. Primary Forms? Here is the current situation at MMC: Almost 5,000 cars owned by students, neighbors, and friends are parked in MMC garages for grizzly essays safekeeping.

The cars appear to be intact and the garages are accessible for vehicle removal as soon as curfew and road conditions allow. Please beware of primary, standing water, and other road hazards. The university remains closed and classes–including online classes–are still canceled until further notice. Thesis About Internet? Students, faculty and staff will receive ample notice to make their way back to campus. Primary Book Report Forms? Take this time to recover, address any damages to dwellings and premises, and help your loved ones and friends to speech self critique essay, get back on track. Damage to campus includes felled trees, such as these by primary report, the Wertheim Conservatory. There is significant damage to bear, MMC landscaping, including some toppled trees. (We will do our best to replant trees, some of primary forms, which I know are cherished by many of us.) A preliminary assessment indicates minor flooding, downed light posts and signs. There are reports of leaks and water intrusion in several buildings.

Because the Biscayne Bay Campus is in an evacuation zone, we are just now reviewing the situation there. A Dream Holiday? At this point, we have not identified significant damage. Likewise, assessments will need to primary forms, be conducted at FIU Downtown on Brickell, The Wolfsonian-FIU, The Jewish Museum of Florida, FIU@I-75, Aquarius and the Engineering Center. A group of FIU administrators and staff stayed on campus during the storm. They deserve our thanks and argumentative essay appreciation for their willingness to be on site and available. They have started the recovery process that will encompass three major areas: Every building on every campus, center and museum will need to be inspected and urgent or safety issues addressed before the campus can reopen. Returning students who sheltered at Parkview to their on-campus suites is a top priority, as is opening the Green Library, where our students can get back to report, their studies. Assuming no hidden damages, we expect to open our libraries as soon as possible and thesis internet certainly before classes resume.

Monroe County evacuees are being sheltered in the recreation center and the Ocean Bank Convocation Center. Because it is unclear the extent of damage the Florida Keys have sustained, it is book report forms, impossible to say when those buildings will be returned to normal operations. Please understand that we and now others see our campus as a sanctuary. Please give our visitors your respect and support. President Mark B. Rosenberg stands with Chief Information Officer Robert Grillo, center, and a dedicated team of argumentative on education, IT staffers who spent the primary report, storm managing the data center to ensure our sites stay operational and information remains accessible to the public. Power and technology. The technology infrastructure fared very well, thanks to thesis about, excellent planning and active management through the storm. Systems that were brought down for the storm are being restored. However, several campus buildings do not have power at this time. Students, faculty and staff.

Many members of the university community wisely left town ahead of Hurricane Irma’s arrival. Others, unfortunately may have to deal with significant personal challenges and loss. Please know that it will take some time to bring the campus back to normal operations. All employees should make every effort to contact their supervisor and let them know they are ok. Essential staff should report to primary book report forms, work as soon as conditions allow it. Non-essential staff will be called back to work a day or two before classes resume. Please look for updates as more information becomes available.

Updates will be sent through: I have often said that we are blessed with a meaningful and argumentative essay on education purposeful life. This storm gives us an opportunity to primary book report forms, pause, take stock and rededicate ourselves to the cause of grizzly, hope and opportunity that our university provides. Message from forms, President Rosenberg – Sept. 8, 2017. The next 72 hours likely will be very challenging. Hurricane Irma has shown it has no mercy: the wind will be loud and nerve-wracking, the pounding wind-driven rain will seem unending, and thesis about internet dating storm-related noise will be annoying, to say the least. Our collective experience with Hurricane Andrew, and more recent serious storms – as well as our preparation – will serve us well. But the primary book forms, key element is our resilient FIU family and argumentative on education the community of family and supporters from around the nation and indeed the world who have expressed their concern and care for our FIU. Experience tells us that in a situation such as this, individuals can make a big difference.

I challenge you to try to book forms, make a difference—particularly in supporting family and community. And because we care about you, I want to share with you what is likely to happen. You will go through a lot during the next few days. I am sure that most of us are already exhausted by the draining efforts to prepare and support others. Safety must be first. If you are bunkered at home, understand that you will likely lose electricity, and grizzly bear essays may need to retreat to a windowless room if all else fails.

During the last major hurricane, many benefitted from battery operated TVs and radios which provided life-saving information. Understand that while you may be afraid, your family members will be equally fearful and that you have an unprecedented opportunity to give comfort to loved ones and to rise above the difficult moments. Because everything indicates that this will be a long storm, don’t be fooled by moments of calm—we may either be momentarily in the eye of the storm or we may be in between rain and wind bands. Primary? This storm is expected to last all day Sunday and possibly into Monday. Argumentative On Education System? Stay inside throughout. Because you will likely lose power, you should conserve whatever the battery power you have in flashlights and cell phones. Prior to the storm’s arrival you should fill bathtubs and containers with water. If you have running water after the storm, it’s a good idea to boil it before drinking it. After Irma has passed, there will be a period of eerie silence before the primary report, helicopters, generators, and grinding chain saw sounds fill the void. Because air conditioners will not function, you will feel the teachers day speech, blistering heat of our South Florida tropics.

Cell coverage and phone connectivity will be limited. Local television and primary book report radio will be your best source of information. Standing water is dangerous and so are downed power wires. Stay away from both. Local travel will be difficult: street signage will likely have been blown away, stop lights at intersections may not work, and basic supplies such as generators, plastics and tarps will likely be in speech self essay short supply. If your dwelling has sustained significant damage, you will need to primary book, make sure that the house number is visible — even if you must spray paint it somewhere on the property. Beware of unlicensed door knockers selling repair services. There were many families ripped off by these con artists.

If you have a generator, please be aware of the dangers of essays day speech, carbon monoxide poisoning; electric shock and electrocution; and fire. Book Report? Use it outdoors, away from open windows, vents and doors. Do not run it in an enclosed space like your home or a garage. Make sure to turn the generator off and let it cool down before refueling. Expect that our ability to communicate with you, initially, will be limited by the lack of wireless connectivity. Essays Day Speech? We have back up plans to keep current our website, but if you cannot get access to primary, it, that will not help you. At this point, we are closed through Monday evening. But we expect to be closed for more days after that. Thesis About Internet Dating? Our first objective will be to ensure that the primary forms, FIU family is argumentative essay on education, intact.

We urge you to help friends and colleagues in recovery. Then we will immediately turn to safety and facility issues. All buildings and systems will be carefully checked to ensure good working order. Then and book report forms only then will we determine a timetable to first reopen the university, and essay then resume classroom instruction. It is book report, highly unlikely that we can both reopen the university and holiday then resume class simultaneously.

We understand that our students, faculty and staff need time to begin the process of recovery. Once the university resumes operations, our Counseling and Psychological Services team will be available to forms, support our students. Please stay alert to announcements about university operations. Information about campuses reopening will be communicated through the local media and FIU’s official channels: Messages to your FIU email account. FIU social media accounts (Facebook and holiday essay @FIU) The university news site: Call 305-348-HELP (4357) for recorded updates.

Please be safe and forms keep those around you safe as well. I look forward to seeing you back on teachers day speech, campus soon. Remember this: staying calm can be the Panther Superpower. Hurricane Irma Update #4 – Sept. 8, 2017. The campus is closed through at least Monday as we deal with the impact and book aftermath of holiday essay, Hurricane Irma. Our goal is to get our campuses up and running as soon as possible after the storm but first we must take care of each other and our community. It will likely take several days to reopen the university and forms several days after that to resume classes.

We will do our best to essays, give everyone ample notice to return. Faculty and staff should make every effort to check in with your supervisor as soon as possible after the storm. We want to be able to account for every member of our team. Please note that payroll will stay on schedule. Primary Report? Employees who are designated as essential employees, should return to campus as soon as conditions allow. At FIU we are sheltering evacuees from Monroe County, as well as approximately 700 campus residents who were not able to evacuate. We have a group of committed staff that will be taking care of our students and looking after the campus infrastructure.

Please note that campus parking garages are full and closed as of Friday morning. Please stay alert to announcements about university operations. Updates will be sent to your FIU email account. Also, information about campuses reopening and other conditions will be communicated through FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. Thank you for everything you have done to grizzly, prepare. Please be safe, stay calm and take a leadership role in your family and your neighborhood to keep others safe as well. Hurricane Irma Update #3 – Sept. Report Forms? 6, 2017.

Now that FIU is closed and thesis each of you has gone home to prepare for the effects of Hurricane Irma, it is a good time to focus on primary book report, safety and start thinking about post-event recovery. The most important part of being ready, is being informed. Please monitor local media and watch for National Hurricane Center updates. Please be mindful that many storm-related injuries occur during the preparation and clean-up phases. Take steps to be safe and use proper protective equipment. All preparations must be completed by end of day on Friday (Sept. 8) as the weather is expected to worsen by Saturday morning (Sept. 9). Please note that there will be no access to campus buildings as of Thursday morning (Sept. 7).

Buildings will be locked and access cards will not work. As a reminder, members of the university community who would like to leave a personal vehicle in a campus garage to critique essay, protect it from the storm, may park in the Blue Garage (PG2) (levels 2-4), PG5 and PG6 (levels 3-6) by 7 p.m. on Friday (Sept. 8), when FIU police will shut down all access to the campus. Please understand that after the storm, the campus may be closed and the vehicle may not be readily accessible. Once the storm has passed faculty and staff are asked to make every effort to communicate with their supervisor to primary report, let them know you are ok. As you assess the effects of the storm, please be careful and holiday essay do not take chances with standing water, which may be deep, contaminated or electrified. Please remember that FIU has a communication protocol in place to keep the community informed about university operations. After the storm, please look for updates from report, FIU emergency managers on your FIU email account.

Official information about campuses reopening and other conditions will be communicated through FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and self critique Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. Thank you for your attention and your active participation in keeping the book forms, university community safe and prepared. Keep calm and take care! Hurricane Irma Update #2 – Sept. Speech Self? 5, 2017. There is a strong likelihood that South Florida will be impacted by Hurricane Irma later this week and into the weekend.

Irma is a large, category 5 hurricane that should not be underestimated. It is imperative that every member of the community takes this threat seriously and pays attention to updates from the National Hurricane Center. This message contains important information. Please take a moment to report forms, read it completely. To allow time for the university community to essays teachers day speech, prepare and be safe, all classes, including online classes, are canceled starting at 11 p.m. tonight through the weekend. Employees are expected to report to report forms, work on essays, Wednesday ; university services will take place as usual.

The university will be closed starting on Thursday. All special events on campus, including the Saturday football game at primary book forms, FIU, are canceled. Please make good use of this time to prepare, purchase needed supplies and secure property before we start feeling the effects of the weather ahead of the storm. Hurricane preparation may be a new experience for many members of our university community. For tips on what to do, please visit the FIU Department of Emergency Management website or Miami-Dade County’s Hurricane guide. FIU employees should consult with supervisors about teachers any campus preparations that need to be made, including securing supplies needed to prepare labs, offices or other work space.

Before leaving campus at primary forms, the end of the day on Wednesday , please take the following steps: Back up all your data in case we lose power. You may use CrashPlan, an online cloud storage solution or Microsoft OneDrive for Business from bear essays, Office365. Please guard against flood damage by raising any sensitive equipment off the floor, especially in ground floor offices. Cover all electronic equipment to protect it from primary book report, any water leakage that may occur as a result of the about internet dating, storm. State vehicles need to be filled with fuel and parked in a designated garage.

We urge all students to leave campus. Local students who live on campus, should make plans to ride out the primary report, storm at essays, home with family or friends. Report Forms? Those who cannot leave will be sheltered in one of the housing buildings but not in their own rooms. Bicycles and other personal property must be secured or brought indoors. Please look for more information from Housing and Residential Life. Students who live in off-campus housing should plan to shelter in place, go home or go to a Miami-Dade County shelter. This is the time to gather supplies, medication and personal belongings that you will need to have with you over the next few days. The Miami Beach Urban Studios, the Jewish Museum of Florida, The Wolfsonian-FIU and FIU Downtown on Brickell employees must evacuate by 5 p.m. on Wednesday . Please note that the recreation center at MMC is closed to members and will serve as a special needs shelter for Monroe County evacuees only starting on Wednesday . Please note that FIU is not a general population shelter. Faculty members should not attempt to ride out the storm in a dream campus labs.

Please take the time today and Wednesday to secure research and facilities. Members of the university community who would like to leave a personal vehicle on book, campus should park in internet dating the Blue Garage (PG2) (levels 2-4), PG5 and PG6 (levels 3-6). Please understand that after the storm, the primary report, campus may be closed and you may not have access to your vehicle right away. Please note that FIU has a communication protocol in place to speech self essay, keep the community informed about report university operations during and after emergencies, including hurricanes. After the storm, please look for updates from FIU emergency managers on your FIU email account. You may also consult and look for announcements on local media. Anyone who has lived through a hurricane knows what a storm of Irma’s magnitude can do.

Please remember that many injuries and fatalities take place in the aftermath of the storm. Please plan ahead and take no chances with your safety during or after the storm. Hurricane Irma Update #1 – Sept. 4, 2017. Hurricane Irma, currently churning east of the Leeward Islands, is expected to continue strengthening and could become a category 4 hurricane in the next few days. Please monitor local media and a dream holiday essay pay attention to updates from the National Hurricane Center. University operations remain as scheduled. In the next day or two, the possible impact of Hurricane Irma to our area will be more predictable. FIU emergency managers are monitoring Irma and making appropriate preparations, should the primary book forms, storm impact South Florida.

Likewise, please take this time to review and finalize your personal hurricane plan, make preparations at home and argumentative purchase necessary supplies. Hurricane preparation may be a new experience for many members of book, our university community. For tips on a dream holiday, what to do, please visit the FIU Department of Emergency Management website or Miami-Dade County’s Hurricane guide. Please note that FIU has a communication protocol in place to keep the forms, community informed about university operations during emergencies, including hurricanes. Should our area be put under a hurricane watch or warning, you will begin receiving regular updates from FIU emergency managers on your FIU email account. On Education? You may also consult for the latest. Please make good use of this time to prepare and forms take responsibility for your own safety.

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Adult Education and book report forms, Training Essay. This paper work presents the holiday summary of the most well known adult learning theory – Andragogy, explains how it accounts for the characteristics, patterns of learning, and motivation adopted by adult learners. Moreover, reflects on my own qualities and circumstance as an primary book report forms, adult learner; critique the strengths and argumentative essay system, weaknesses of Andragogy. Book Report Forms! Andragogy, pedagogy, adult learning, education, training, adult learner, characteristics, motivation. All these years, the specialized field of education has generated a number of models and theories of adult learning, included transformation learning theory, experiential learning theory, informal learning theory…etc. And the most important one with which to be familiar is Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy. Andragogy was described as the about internet dating “art and science to teaching adults to primary forms, learn” (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 2005). It also interpreted the thesis on primary foundation and structure of adult learning, the concept of andragogy has been worldwide used in different times with different connotations and seem as a bible of book forms adult education.

The notion of andragogy has been around for nearby two centuries. It originally formulated by a German teacher, Alexander Kapp, in 1833 (Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983). He used “andragogy” to describe education theory. Andragogy literally means “man leading”, which contrasted with pedagogy (Since andr- is Latin for “man”, peda is argumentative essay on education system, Latin for “child” and agogus is Latin for “leading”). And later on, couple educators had used the term of book report forms “andragogy” in their article. It included Rosenstock in argumentative on education system, 1921; Lindeman wrote “The Meaning of Adult Education” in 1926. The notion of book report “Andragogy” was well developed, widely discussed and used in 1980 by Malcolm Shepherd Knowles, a champion of a dream holiday essay andragogy. Knowles first introduced the concept of in the US in 1968. With his previous work on informal adult education, Knowles used those elements of process and setting to construct the shape and direction of adult education.

The concept he used to explain the theory of primary report forms adult education was the notion of andragogy. “Malcolm Knowles, Informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy” (Jay-D Man, 2009). Knowles applied the argumentative essay on education system idea of andragogy as the primary book report forms foundation of adult learning, he marked it as a new born technology which moderates the development and a dream holiday essay, performance of adult learning. He posited six assumptions related to the adult learners: 1) Need to know, 2) self-concept, 3) experience, 4) readiness to learn, 5) orientation to learning , and 6) motivation to learn (Knowles, 1980) “Adults want to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it” (Knowles, 2005). Forms! Adults are realist, they want to find out what is the advantage and the loss before they make decision to do something. The “why”, “what”, “how”, “when”, “where” will first came to their mind before they making choices. For example: A man find he needs to improve his academy standard to get a promotion at work, which is “why” he wants to continue learning; he will choices a subject related to grizzly bear, his present career to book report, learn, he knows “what” he needs to speech critique essay, learn and “what” is expected of him; in book report forms, order to thesis, achieve his goal, he knows “how” he going to do and plan; beside works and take care his family, he needs to know “when” he studies; after conducts research, he knows “where” is a best place for his continuing learning. “Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions, for primary book their own lives” (Knowles, 1998). Argumentative System! Adult learners are autonomous, they expect and enjoy independence, like to primary report forms, take control in everything and see themselves as self-directed.

They don’t want adult educators use a pedagogical model to teach them. They think learning is a process of sharing with the teacher and one another, for speech essay example, they prefer interaction rather than formal subject issue. So teacher has responsibility to encourage and primary book report forms, promote the process of self-direction. That is a dream essay, why Knowles emphasizes that adult educators must “make efforts to create learning experiences in which adults are helped to make the transition from dependent to book report, self-directing learners” (Knowles, 1998). For those adult learners, they are individual differences in thesis about, their background, occupation, education standard, learning style, interests, goals and motivation will cause different experiences than youth when come into an educational activity (Knowles, 2005). Upon the adult learners’ prior experience, Knowles (1998) point out primary report forms four paths that adult experience learning: A wider range of individual differences will be established. Offer a richest resource for on education learning.

Create deviation that can restrain, or sculpt new learning. Provide area for adults’ self-identity. Primary Report Forms! Since the adult learners have many experiences, teacher must draw on learner experiences. Everyone in class could share their experiences through experiential techniques (simulations, group discussions, or problem-solving activities, etc). Moreover, sometime the adult learners may have more experience than the educator in some area. The communication and knowledge sharing will not only limit between instructor and essays, student, also lead to 2 and 3 way interactions: between instructor and learner, learner and learner as well.

Readiness to primary report, Learn. Adults learn in essays, order to cope effectively with real-life tasks. They normally come to class motivated, and ready to primary report forms, learn things they need to know. Knowles observes that “adults generally become ready to learn when their life situation creates a need to know” (Knowles, 2005). Anticipate the adults’ readiness to learn is very important in adult education, it determine how to proceed the training, and what strategies and activities should apply to meet a learner’s readiness.

Surveys of internet learners prior to beginning a course, or some introduction course before the advanced courses are the ways to retrieve the material and aware the learner’s readiness. Orientation to learning. Learning is a process of increasing competence to achieve full potential in life. According to forms, Knowles, adults are problem-centered in their orientation to learning (Knowles, 2005). They prefer a problem solving orientation to speech, learning (problem centered), rather than content-oriented. This orientation relates to their experience, task or problems in everyday situations. The sense of adults is that learning will allow them to primary forms, execute task or deal with problems faced in life.

When they confront real-life situation, they want to learn what will help them to contribute their effectiveness, and about, they learn best in this status. Motivation is the last core of Andragogy assumption, but not the least. Knowles emphasizes the adult learner’s motivation can be blocked by training and education if neglect of adult learning principles (Knowles, 2005). “Adults tend to be more motivated toward learning that helps them solve problems in primary report, their livers or results in internal payoffs” (Knowles, 1998). Adult learners are responsive to some motivators. And normally those motivators can be divided into external (e.g., better job, higher salaries) and internal (e.g., desire of job satisfaction, self-esteem).

And the andragogical model assumes adult learners tend to be more motived by the internal motivators than the external one. Base on the six assumptions of Andragogy, let’s see how adult learners and educators began to implement the practical applications: Have a need to know what they expect to learn before investing time in a learning event Make sure that the essays teachers day speech learners know the aim, goal and purpose of training as early as they can. Self-concept. Must uphold the primary forms concept of self-directing, responsible their own growing. Coach learners to self critique essay, find their needs and guide their own learning experience. Come to a learning occasion with richest of experience and trade-off to contribute. Create and maintain a learning environment to build on and make use of learner’s experience.

Readiness to learn. Uphold a strong readiness to learn those things that they undertaking to primary report forms, learn. Ensure training relates directly to situations adult face in real-life task. Thesis About Internet! Dedicate their energy to learning things that help them cope with daily life or solve a problem. Identify learner’s needs and interests, develop content based on book report, the their needs. More responsive to internal motivators than external motivators. Create a safe learning environment and make sure the internal motivation will not blocked. Characteristics of Adult learners. According to the Andragogy, Malcolm Knowles practiced a characterization of the defining features for teachers adult learners, and shown as following: Adults have identifiable goal – they clearly understand what they need and know how to achieve their goal; Adults are independent – they are expect and enjoy independence, like to take control, and should allowed to express themselves freely; Adults have wealth of experience – need others to recognize their previous experience, including both positive and negative; Adults want immediate usefulness of their learning – they want to apply what they learn to book forms, solve and handle problems faced in their daily life; Adults fear to the educational process – normally graduated from school years and do not familiar with those process; Adults are hard to argumentative essay on education system, change – with their prior experience, their conducts become a habit, and some even though became their character already. Andragogy vs Pedagogy.

Since the Andragogy is a learning theory for adult learners, and which is contrast to Pedagogy. The following table summarizes the assumptions and processes of book andragogy and pedagogy: Clearly understand why they need to know before choose to learn. Only need to know what the teacher teaches. Raise of self-directedness. Learners are a wealth resource for learning. Readiness to learn. Developed from life’s experience. Directly related to age level and curriculum.

Motivated by internal payoffs and curiosity. Motivated by external incentives and punishment. Immediacy of application. By educator / instructor. Formulation of objectives. By educator / instructor. Mutual measurement of program. By educator / instructor.

Barriers of learning. Compare with children and teenagers, adult learners have different roles and many responsibilities in their daily life, they must balance against the demands of learning. Those responsibilities will cause barriers against their choice to return to school or participate in workplace training. Normally, those barriers can separated into three categories: 1) Attitudinal barriers; 2) Time and financial barriers; and 3) Education barriers. We need to identify those barriers and overcome them and take control of on primary our own learning. Primary Report! Knew already – People with “I already know” attitude to reject learning. He think it does not require training in holiday, that area, because he may already trained or thought himself had enough knowledge in that aspect. And properly people has this attitude are come with good education level; Previous experience – Generally people are used to primary report forms, learn in a traditional style, instructor teach with transmittal techniques. With this experience, they may feel the learning is irrelevant or boring, so they reject.

Lacks of trust – Students attend a class with different backgrounds and goals. Do not trust the other participants will cause some of them do not participate actively in grizzly essays, class for nervous and shy. Problems of motivation – people come to learn without initiative, they were forced to learn. Hard to motivate people if they don’t have own motivation. Time and financial barriers. Lack of time – No matter the duration of a course, adults need to invest time to primary report forms, join it. They need to “sacrifice” from other activities and concern of its existence. Speech Self Essay! Lack of money – Free training is minority.

Therefore, money always is a main barrier to access adult education services. Family responsibilities – Caring for children, the obligation of accompany spouse, will cause shortage of study time. Organizing schedule – You need to change or sacrifice the study timetable because of the family and work responsibilities. Too old to learn – Generally can be find in book, older and thesis about internet dating, low education level people. The behaviour of reject learning is because they don’t familiar with the new technology or specialized languages, and their reaction time is often slow. Primary! Lack of confidence – Low self-esteem, past failures experience mark the adults, preventing them to overcome frustrations and fears. First of all, I would like to introduce myself, and the brief of my background are shown as below: Male, 42 years old, married with 2 children (12 Yrs 7 Yrs). I’ve been serving the Hong Kong Police Force for 22 years, working in operational field but non-frontline. Besides operation planning, I’m also involved in a “Diploma in Police Search Venue Security Programme”, which was held by Hong Kong Police and granted accreditation from HKCAAVQ, I’m one of the instructors of this programme. I am F.5 graduated, then granted a diploma of Police Policing on 2002, and thesis, that was my last academic certificate. According to my profile, I am a typical adult learner and faced most of the barriers that I had mentioned previously.

I would like to critique the strengths and weaknesses of andragogy with my own circumstance. As an adult learner, the motivation of learning is very important, is core factor of adult education. Adults have different tasks and needs in their daily life; they will put their needs in orderly with the seniority. If the need is related to learning, they will have a great motivation, and learning become the priority in their life, so no any barriers can block them, and they study best in this situation. However, the concept of “motivation” is not the strength of andragogy in my view. Upon my opinion, I will choose the concept of “need to know”, because it’s the factor that cause “motivation”.

With the “why”, “what” and “how”, I will explain the report principle of “need to know” on my circumstance. At the beginning, I come to class for essays my own promotion and seem as career investment. I like my current career, and seem to be my life occupation. In order to enhance my competitive advantage and help myself excel in my working place, I choose to continue learning. That will offer opportunities for further development and lead promotion. My view have change during this training, I find out I know more about the primary book forms adult training theory, which help me to teach the trainee in my programme; enhance the communication skill with my children and people around me. The most important is I know myself more, I am shortage not only in academic standard but also in daily knowledge. System! I enjoy study and hunger for the knowledge. My motivation of learning becomes stronger and stronger, because I clearly understand why I need to book report forms, learn, what I need to learn and how I need to learn. During this moment, I will say the concept of “Orientation” is the weakness of my own learning.

Since I come for learning is not for a problem solve purpose, and the subject I study also not relate to my daily task. Essay! Knowles introduced and book, develop the andragogy as core principles of adult learning. It help the educator designing and conducting adult learning, and a dream holiday, build more effective learning processes for adults. Andragogy works prefect in primary book, practice when it is adapted to fit the special character of the thesis on primary learners and the learning organizations. Adams, N. Primary Report! B. (n.d.). Thesis! Andragogy. Andragogy. Retrieved March 1, 2014, from Ana, B. (2013, October/November). Characteristics of adult learning. Characteristics of Adult Learning.

Retrieved March 1, 2014, from Andragogy how adults learn. (2013, October/November). Book! Andragogy How Adults Learn. Retrieved from about dating, Aspell, D. D. (n.d.). Retrieved August, 2003, from report forms, henschkej/andragogy_articles_added_04_06/aspell_Andragogy%20-%20Adult%20Learning.pdf Crawford, S. Thesis About Dating! R. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, University/College: University of report forms California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 19 March 2016.

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cold skin essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to report, avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Thesis Dating! Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at book report forms, its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of essays ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of primary viable systematic alternatives to speech critique, Western liberalism. Primary! In the argumentative on education past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in book forms, the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the internet Beethoven piped into primary report Japanese department stores, and bear the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and primary book report Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the holiday end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of primary book report forms human government.

This is not to say that there will no longer be events to a dream essay, fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in forms, the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of grizzly bear essays historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of primary book material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of holiday a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of primary book history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of argumentative on education consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of book report modern social science, insofar as man for essays, him was the book product of a dream essay his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. Primary Forms! The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and essay technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from primary book forms his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to a dream, our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in book report forms, the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent.

Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. Thesis About Internet! For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of primary Jena the victory of the about dating ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the primary book forms next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the argumentative essay franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon.

The two world wars in primary book forms, this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the thesis on primary education various provinces of human civilization were brought up to report, the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at essays, the end of history is forms liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only speech critique, with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in primary, the countries of thesis internet dating postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the book report Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the essay dialectic of the master and book slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the a dream holiday essay struggle for the universal recognition of primary book rights, and on education the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for report, generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. A Dream Essay! And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the primary book report remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. Thesis! To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the primary report forms meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in thesis, the realm of primary report forms human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of system American politicians, but ideas in the sense of primary book report forms large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and argumentative explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an primary book forms extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the critique professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the primary book gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is essay on education rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to book report, the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and a dream holiday essay academic scribblers of earlier generations. Book Forms! This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the grizzly bear essays form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.

Consciousness is primary forms cause and not effect, and system can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of primary later thinkers. Grizzly Essays! Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the forms entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. A Dream Holiday Essay! Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in primary book report forms, the autonomous power of ideas. Bear Essays! A recent example of primary this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the thesis internet dating Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of primary report its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well.

Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the thesis internet dating same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by report forms, the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from holiday essay being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and primary stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. Thesis On Primary Education! But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of book report forms economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to a dream, understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.

For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to book, baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to bear essays, anyone who chose to look. Forms! Why was it that these countries moved away from essays central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the primary report forms elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for teachers, the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in primary book report, no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the on primary education result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the primary forms underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in grizzly bear essays, its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is primary forms absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the about internet homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.

The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of report forms many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. Holiday! To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of primary book report forms cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an essay autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.

But that state of consciousness that permits the book report growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by internet dating, the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the primary end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in thesis, the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out primary forms above, we must seek an answer to bear essays, this question in the realm of report forms ideology and consciousness. Our task is speech not to answer exhaustively the primary book report challenges to essay, liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only forms, those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of grizzly world history.

For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in primary book, Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in argumentative on education system, some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by primary report forms, World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the about internet dating idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. Forms! There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the teachers day speech war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of primary forms unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.

The ruins of the essays Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and book report all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in grizzly essays, Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the report forms war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and critique this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against primary book report liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the about classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of primary report forms economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and argumentative essay on education social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in forms, the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the a dream essay appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. Forms! This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the speech critique essay major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in primary forms, the corresponding electoral success of grizzly bear conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in report forms, an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is argumentative essay system something that ultimately needs to be overcome.

This is book forms not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to thesis, be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is primary precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of internet major ideological transformations. Book Report Forms! Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by internet dating, the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States.

Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the primary factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by on primary, following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. Report Forms! V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the grizzly essays Shariah . Primary Book! Desire for thesis, access to the consumer culture, created in primary report, large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in grizzly bear, fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in report, promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of argumentative Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of primary this population that it should be ruled by bear, an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in primary report forms, economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.

Even the former socialist regime in speech self essay, Burma, which for so many decades existed in book, dismal isolation from the essays day speech larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to primary report, Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and essays day speech oldest culture in Asia, China. Book Report Forms! The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in education, 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of report a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.

The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from on primary which he was able to extend the reform to primary, other parts of the grizzly bear essays economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in forms, any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of education wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is report no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the grizzly bear new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on book forms political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition.

By ducking the question of essays day speech political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Primary Book Report! Yet the pull of the on primary liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and primary book report forms the economy becomes more open to the outside world. Grizzly! There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for primary forms, China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and thesis on primary education recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for book report forms, change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the about dating pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.

Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the primary book report forms world proletariat - that have put the about internet dating final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in primary report forms, the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to speech self essay, share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is primary report forms seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the a dream essay changes that have taken place to primary forms, date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in thesis, the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and book report forms consciousness. And in that respect, it is thesis about clear that an astounding transformation has occurred.

Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and primary book report that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in teachers day speech, the realm of primary report foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in self critique, the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to report forms, Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. Essays Day Speech! After a couple of initial years of primary book report ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the essays teachers day speech promulgation of report new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.

There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the bear essays reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the report social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the grizzly bear essays political sphere, the primary book report proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and self critique essay therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for book, open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the thesis empowering of the forms Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Thesis About Dating! Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and primary forms that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. Grizzly Essays! While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and primary report forms his successor is questionable.

The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for speech self essay, bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is primary report forms seeking to return to the true Lenin is thesis perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the primary forms democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is holiday hard to know how the primary book report forms Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the essays teachers day speech label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at book report forms, the end of history it is a dream holiday not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. Forms! And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and essay of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.

IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and primary forms communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of grizzly bear class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the book revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the essays impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the primary emptiness at a dream holiday essay, the core of primary book forms liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the internet dating good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and primary book it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of bear Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and book report forms if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in thesis on primary, Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.

But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of primary report liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and a dream essay elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Primary Report Forms! Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on critique essay the level of liberalism or communism. Book Report! The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and about dating ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.

Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the primary report forms meantime, they have helped to spread the holiday essay universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of forms history for international relations? Clearly, the education vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. Report Forms! But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the on education system world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for primary report forms, a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the grizzly last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from primary book report forms those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. A Dream Holiday Essay! Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at book report forms, the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and on primary education assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of primary report forms human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of a dream essay thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for primary report forms, example, recently explained that if as a result of argumentative essay Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by book forms, a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in holiday essay, the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in book report, which any state defines its national interest is bear not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled.

The justifications for imperialism varied from primary report nation to dating, nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and report Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to essay, rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of book report territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of thesis on primary great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to primary, the realm of thesis on primary education nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the primary report end of history is teachers far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.

This behavior has been driven, however, by primary, an external threat from grizzly essays states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in primary book report forms, their absence. Thesis On Primary! To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the book OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the bear essays use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of primary book report its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of speech self critique human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.

This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in primary book forms, the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against grizzly bear Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and primary report the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to a dream, which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in primary book report, a remarkably short time, due in essay, no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in primary book report forms, which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.

As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the bear essays resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to primary book forms, return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in grizzly bear, themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in primary book, the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by speech self, Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and report forms remain stuck in history.

The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is essays teachers day speech a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the book report likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and internet between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible.

There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the book forms post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and holiday essay Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the primary report scene. The end of teachers history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to primary book report, risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by essays teachers day speech, economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history.

I can feel in myself, and see in primary book forms, others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and education conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of primary book forms history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of system Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to primary forms, contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and essay incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of book report forms history with the speech self postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the primary book report forms preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is holiday rational is real, and everything that is real is primary book report forms rational. (back to text)

5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the essay material world is itself only an aspect of primary book forms mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of bear essays philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the primary book report idealist perspective. Holiday! (back to text) 7. Primary Book! One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is grizzly a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of primary report forms material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to a dream, text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. Primary Forms! The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to speech critique essay, some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence.

Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the primary forms Trinity. Bear Essays! (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the primary book report forms frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of dating course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to primary report forms, rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.

Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the essay on education system long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13.

This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. Forms! This is essays day speech particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the report Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and thesis education the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to book report, text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. Teachers Day Speech! (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of report forms a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text)

18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. Thesis About Internet Dating! 15 (August 1988), 27-46. Book Report Forms! New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)